Country Governance

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Basic Information

Country Flag:
Country Map: United Nations Maps: Libya
Country Name: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah)
Name of Capital City: Tripoli (Tarabulus)
Date of Independence: Gained independence on December 24, 1951 from Italy.
Constitutional monarchy was declared on January 2, 1952.
The socialist revolution took place on September 1, 1969.

Administrative Divisions

Regions, Provinces or Governorates: 22 governorates (sha’biyat): Al Butnan, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jabal al Gharbi, Al Jfara, Al Kufrah, Al Marj, Al Murgub, Al Wahat, An Nuqat al Khams, Az Zawiyah, Benghazi, Darnah, Ghat, Misratah, Murzuq, Nalut, Sabha, Surt, Tarabulus, Wadi Al Hayaa, Al Jufrah and Wadi al Shatii.
Country Area (sq km): 1757000
Population (million): 6.2 (2007)
Population, annual growth rate (%) 1975-2005: 2.9
Population, estimated growth rate (%) 2005-2015: 1.9

Political System

Type of State: Islamic Arabic Socialist Mass-State/unitary
Date of Constitution: The Constitutional Proclamation was adopted on December 11, 1969.
The Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People amended the constitution on March 2, 1977.

Head of State

Type: The head of state is the Secretary General of the People’s Congress.
Name of Current: Colonel Mu’ammar al-Qadhafi is the Revolutionary Leader.

Executive Branch

About: There are two branches of government in Libya: the "revolutionary sector" comprises Revolutionary Leader Gaddafi, the Revolutionary Committees and the remaining members of the 12-person Revolutionary Command Council, which was established in 1969. The historical revolutionary leadership is not elected and cannot be voted out of office since they are in power by virtue of their involvement in the revolution.
Name of Current: The General People's Congress (Parliament) nominated Dr. Al-Baghdadi Al-Mahmoudi as Secretary General of the General People's Committee (Council of Ministers) on March 5, 2006. He succeeded Dr. Shukri Muhammad Ghanim, who had occupied this post since March 2003.

Legislative Branch

Type: Unicameral parliament
- General People's Congress [Arabic]


Suffrage: Suffrage universal for Libyan nationals over the age of 18.
- See Also: Libya - Election Calendar and Results

Human Development Indicators

Human development index (HDI): 0.755 (2010)
HDI rank (worldwide): 53 (2010)
Adult literacy rate (% aged 15 and older): 86.8 (2007)
Female secondary gross enrollment (%): 119.5 (2006)
Gross enrollment, tertiary level education (%): 55.8 (2003)
Life expectancy at birth (years): 16.503 (2010)
Poverty index (HP1-1) value (%): 13.4 (2007)
GDP per capita (PPP US$): 17067.629 (2010)
GDP per capita (PPP US$) rank minus HDI rank: -5 (2010)
* See more human development indicators on Arab Statistics (external link)

Judiciary Branch

Legal system and codification: Combination of Civil Law and Islamic legal principles.
Administration: The Supreme Council for Judicial Authority is the administrative authority of the judiciary.
Supreme Court: The final court of appeal, established in 1953, is the Supreme Court of Libya. The Court is presided over by a president elected by the General People’s Congress.
Constitutional Court:
Shari'a or Personal Status: Cases appealed from the lower court and involving sharia’a, are heard by a separate body called the Sharia’a Court of Appeals.

Membership in International Organizations

United Nations (UN): December 14, 1955
International Monetary Fund (IMF): September 17, 1958
World Trade Organization (WTO): Not a member
Rome Statute for the International Criminal Court (ICC): Not signed
World Bank – International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD): September 17, 1958
World Bank – International Finance Corporation (IFC): September 18, 1958
World Bank – Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA): April 5, 1993
World Bank – International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID): Not a member

Ratification of International Conventions

- Human Rights Conventions
- International Labor Organization (ILO) Conventions
- UN Conventions against Corruption and Transnational Organized Crime
- Environment Treaties