Country Governance

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POGAR > Countries > Sudan In Brief

Basic Information

Country Flag:
Country Map: United Nations Maps: Sudan
Country Name: Republic of the Sudan (Jumhuriyat as-Sudan)
Name of Capital City: Khartoum
Date of Independence: Sudan gained independence on January 1, 1956, from Egypt and Britain.

Administrative Divisions

Regions, Provinces or Governorates: 25 states (wilayat): A'ali an Nil, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrat, Al Jazirah, Al Khartum, Al Qadarif, Al Wahdah, An Nil al Abyad, An Nil al Azraq, Ash Shamaliyah, Bahr al Jabal, Gharb al Istiwa'iyah, Gharb Bahr al Ghazal, Gharb Darfur, Janub Darfur, Janub Kurdufan, Junqali, Kassala, Nahr an Nil, Shamal Bahr al Ghazal, Shamal Darfur, Shamal Kurdufan, Sharq al Istiwa'iyah, Sinnar, Warab.
Country Area (sq km): 2505800
Population (million): 40.4 (2007)
Population, annual growth rate (%) 1975-2005: 2.6
Population, estimated growth rate (%) 2005-2015: 2.1

Political System

Type of State: Republic/federal
Date of Constitution: The Constitution was promulgated on April 12, 1973, but was suspended following a coup on April 6, 1985.
An interim constitution that was drafted on October 10, 1985, was suspended following the coup on June 30, 1989.
A new constitution, approved by a popular referendum, was implemented on July 1, 1998. It was partially suspended on December 12, 1999 by President Al-Bashir.

Head of State

Type: The head of state and the head of government is an elected president.
Name of Current: Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir has been the President since October 16, 1993. Under the new transitional constitution his presidency was renewed on July 9, 2005.

Executive Branch

About: Article 42 of the constitution proclaims the President to be the highest authority in the country.
Name of Current: The transitional constitution of July 9, 2005 provided for the appointment of two vice-presidents. Salva Keer was appointed as first vice-president on August 4, 2005 following the death of the original first vice-president Dr. John Garang on August 1, 2005. Ali Othman Taha was appointed as second vice-president on July 9, 2005.
Vice President Salva Keer was appointed as head of the government of South Sudan on August 4, 2005.

Legislative Branch

Type: Bicameral National Legislature
- National Assembly [English][Arabic]
- Council of States [English][Arabic]


Suffrage: There is universal suffrage for Sudanese nationals age 17 and older.
- See Also: Sudan - Election Calendar and Results

Human Development Indicators

Human development index (HDI): 0.379 (2010)
HDI rank (worldwide): 154 (2010)
Adult literacy rate (% aged 15 and older): 60.9 (2007)
Female secondary gross enrollment (%): 32.1 (2007)
Gross enrollment, tertiary level education (%): 6.2 (2000)
Life expectancy at birth (years): 4.372 (2010)
Poverty index (HP1-1) value (%): 34 (2007)
GDP per capita (PPP US$): 2051.142 (2010)
GDP per capita (PPP US$) rank minus HDI rank: -22 (2010)
* See more human development indicators on Arab Statistics (external link)

Judiciary Branch

Legal system and codification: Islamic legal principles in the north of the country, with some influences from Common Law traditions.
Administration: Administrative authority of the judiciary is vested in the National Judicial Service Commission.
Supreme Court: The judiciary is composed separate hierarchies for civil matters and shari’a matters. There are Courts of Appeal in each provincial capital, and the Supreme Court or Court of Cassation serves as the final court of appeal.
Constitutional Court: The Constitutional Court, established by legislative act in 1998, is empowered to determine the constitutionality of laws, hear cases of individual citizen’s rights guaranteed by the constitution, and adjudicate between different courts on matters of jurisdiction.
Shari'a or Personal Status:

Membership in International Organizations

United Nations (UN): November 12, 1956
International Monetary Fund (IMF): September 5, 1957
World Trade Organization (WTO): Observer
Rome Statute for the International Criminal Court (ICC): Signed September 8, 2000 but not ratified.
World Bank – International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD): September 5, 1957
World Bank – International Finance Corporation (IFC): October 21, 1960
World Bank – Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA): November 7, 1991
World Bank – International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID): May 9, 1973

Ratification of International Conventions

- Human Rights Conventions
- International Labor Organization (ILO) Conventions
- UN Conventions against Corruption and Transnational Organized Crime
- Environment Treaties