Country Governance

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Basic Information

Country Flag:
Country Map: United Nations Maps: Egypt
Country Name: Arab Republic of Egypt (Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah)
Name of Capital City: Cairo (Al Qahirah)
Date of Independence: Gained its independence from Britain on February 28, 1922.

Administrative Divisions

Regions, Provinces or Governorates: 28 governorates (muhafazat): Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj, Hilwan and The 6th of October.
Country Area (sq km): 997739
Population (million): 80.1 (2007)
Population, annual growth rate (%) 1975-2005: 3.1
Population, estimated growth rate (%) 2005-2015: 1.7

Political System

Type of State: Republic/unitary
Date of Constitution: Approved by referendum on September 11, 1971.

Head of State

Type: The head of state is the President.
Name of Current: Mohammed Hosni Mubarak has been the president since October 14, 1981. His presidency was renewed for a 5th 6 years term after he won the first contested presidential election in Egypt's history on September 7, 2005.

Executive Branch

About: The prime minister is appointed by the president. The Assembly prescribes his responsibility and submits it as a report to the president.
Name of Current: Ahmed Nazeef became prime minister in July 2004.

Legislative Branch

Type: Bicameral system
- People's Assembly [English][Arabic][French]
- Advisory Council [English][Arabic]


Suffrage: Universal and mandatory suffrage, 18 years and older.
- See Also: Egypt - Election Calendar and Results

Human Development Indicators

Human development index (HDI): 0.62 (2010)
HDI rank (worldwide): 101 (2010)
Adult literacy rate (% aged 15 and older): 66.4 (2007)
Female secondary gross enrollment (%): 82.6 (2005)
Gross enrollment, tertiary level education (%): 34.8 (2005)
Life expectancy at birth (years): 11.037 (2010)
Poverty index (HP1-1) value (%): 23.4 (2007)
GDP per capita (PPP US$): 5889.202 (2010)
GDP per capita (PPP US$) rank minus HDI rank: -8 (2010)
* See more human development indicators on Arab Statistics (external link)

Judiciary Branch

Legal system and codification: Combination of Civil Law traditions and Islamic legal concepts.
Administration: The Supreme Judicial Council (Maglis al Qadai al-‘Ala) attends to all matters of appointment, promotion, and transfer of judges.
Supreme Court: There are three levels of ordinary courts: summary and primary; appeals; and cassation. The Supreme Court, or Court of Cassation, serves as the final court of appeals for all lower court cases.
Constitutional Court: The Supreme Constitutional Court, established in 1969, has exclusive jurisdiction over questions of constitutionality of laws, rules, and regulations.
Shari'a or Personal Status: Egyptian law is based on Civil Law and Islamic legal principles.

Membership in International Organizations

United Nations (UN): October 24, 1945
International Monetary Fund (IMF): December 27, 1945
World Trade Organization (WTO): June 30, 1995
Rome Statute for the International Criminal Court (ICC): Signed December 26, 2000; not ratified.
World Bank – International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD): December 27, 1945
World Bank – International Finance Corporation (IFC): July 20, 1956
World Bank – Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA): April 12, 1988
World Bank – International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID): June 2, 1972

Ratification of International Conventions

- Human Rights Conventions
- International Labor Organization (ILO) Conventions
- UN Conventions against Corruption and Transnational Organized Crime
- Environment Treaties