Sudan has acceded to four of the seven major United Nations conventions concerned with human rights, namely: the two International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights; on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1986), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1977). It has also ratified the convention on the Rights of the Child (1990). It signed the Convention Against Torture (1986) but did not ratify it. Sudan acceded to the two optional protocols attached to the Rights of the Child Convention concerning the involvement of children in armed conflicts (2005) and to the sale of children, exploiting children in prostitution and pornographic materials (2004).
Sudan has also acceded to the eight International Labour Organization conventions on human rights, namely;: the two conventions (87 and 98) on Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining (1957); the two conventions (29 and 105) on Forced or Compulsory Labour (1957 and 1970 respectively); the two conventions (100 and 111) concerning the Elimination of Discrimination in Respect of Employment and Occupation (1970), and the two conventions (138 and 182) pertaining to Forbidding the Employment of Children and Minors (2002 and 2003 respectively).
Sudan has agreed to the "Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam" issued in 1990 by foreign ministers of Muslim countries. The declaration is a guiding document that does not require ratification. Sudan also acceded to the "Arab Charter of Human Rights/Amended" prepared by the Arab Summit in Tunisia in May 2004, but did not ratify it like most Arab states. It has also acceded to the "African Charter for Human and Peoples' Rights (1986).
Human Rights Institutions
Sudan has two types of human rights institutions, a governmental type such as the "Consultative Council on Human Rights" (1992) attached to the ministry of justice, and the "Committee for Eliminating Kidnapping of Women and Children" (1998) that aims at putting an end to the problem of kidnapped persons which spread during the war in Southern Sudan. The other type is non-governmental organizations working on human rights, such as "The Sudanese Human Rights Organization" (1984) that was re-founded after it returned from exile under the name "The Sudanese Observatory for Human Rights"; and "The Sudanese Group for Human Rights" (1998). Some NGOs specialize in one right such as the "Sudanese Organization for Victims of Torture".
Achievements on the Road to Good Governance
1. The Sudanese government reached on agreement titled "Darfour Peace" with the major faction of the movement and army for liberating Sudan under the leadership of "Mina Arcom Minawi" on May 5, 2006 to put an end to the fighting that broke out in 2003 and resulted in the death of thousands, displacement and refuge of more than 2 million persons in Sudan and Tchad. The agreement contained security arrangements with regard to disarming the Janjawid militias and insurgent forces, and integrating insurgent forces in the Sudanese police force. Other arrangements had to do with power sharing, conducting a popular referendum to determine whether to establish the Darfour "region" that includes its 3 provinces or maintain its current status. The agreement also included arrangements pertaining to sharing of wealth, most significant of which is the establishment of a fund for reconstructing and developing the Darfour region. Both parties agreed on a committee that cooperates with the United Nations to help refugees and displaced persons return to their homes, and another committee for compensating the conflict victims. However, rejection of the peace agreement by another faction in the movement and by the Movement for Justice and Equality had obstructed its implementation. The government continues its efforts to convince opposing factions to join the agreement.
2. The Sudanese government reached a peace agreement with the two rebellious movements in the East, "Al Bijja" and "Free Lions" on October 14, 2006 that put an end to more than 10 years of a bloody conflict. The agreement that was signed in the Eriterian capital Asmara contained arrangements with regard to participating in the executive and legislative authority, the inclusion of the rebels in the Sudanese army and police, wealth sharing and reconstructing the region. Some factions and tribes refused to join the agreement because it did not give them the desired political representation.