Country Governance

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Administrative Structure

A member of parliament enjoys immunity that covers the opinions he expresses while the parliament is convening and he cannot be sued for this before courts. He may not be arrested during the parliament's term unless he is accused of a felony accompanied by the approval of the absolute majority members or if he was arrested red-handed. A member may not be arrested while they the parliament is not in session unless he is accused of a felony and that is approved by the speaker of the parliament or if he is caught red-handed.

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The parliament performs the following duties: legislating federal laws; monitoring the performance of the executive branch; electing the president; approving the appointment of the head and members of the Federal Cassation Court, the head of the General Prosecutor's Office and the head of the Judiciary Inspection Department by absolute majority based the recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council. It also approves appointments of the army chief of staff, chief of the intelligence services as proposed by the cabinet. It also approves the declaration of war and state of emergency by two-thirds majority upon a joint request by the president and the prime minister.

The parliament has the right to question the president upon a request by absolute majority of its members provided the request mentions the reason for questioning. It also has the right to relieve the president of his duties by absolute majority after he has been convicted by the Supreme Federal Court of violating the constitutional oath or violating the constitution or committing grand treason.

A parliament member with the approval of 25 members may direct an interpellation to the prime minister or the ministers to hold them accountable for the affairs under their specialization. Discussion of the questioning does not take place before 7 days of its submission. The parliament may withdraw confidence from a minister by absolute majority and remove him from office the date such a decision is taken. Withdrawing confidence from a minister can only be put forth at his own request or upon a request by 50 members of parliament after the minister was questioned by parliament. The parliament based on a request by 20% of its members may vote to withdraw confidence from the prime minister. If the parliament decides to withdraw confidence by absolute majority the prime minister is removed and the cabinet is dissolved. A new cabinet has to be formed within 30 days.

The parliament has the right to question officials responsible for public independent agencies according to the same rules applied to ministers, and it can dismiss them by absolute majority. The parliament also approves the draft public budget proposed by the government and the final accounts. It also has the right to re-allocate the budget items and to reduce the amount of allocations or when necessary it may propose to the cabinet to increase public expenditures.

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Sessions, Dissolution, State of Exception

The president of the republic calls on the parliament to convene by a presidential decree within 15 days of the date the results of the elections have been certified. The session will be held under the chairmanship of the most senior member, to elect the speaker and his two deputies. In its first session the parliament elects by absolute majority its speaker, then a first deputy and a second deputy by direct, secret balloting. The duration of the parliament's term is 4 years. The parliament has two legislative seasons a year, running for 8 months. Quorum of sessions is valid when an absolute majority of members attend the session. Decisions are taken by simple majority unless it has been stated otherwise. Draft laws are submitted by 10 members or by any specialized parliamentary committee. The president or the prime minister or the speaker or 50 members may call for an extra ordinary session. That session will be confined to the discussion of the topic that necessitated holding it. The legislative season may be extended no longer than 30 days to accomplish unfinished tasks upon a request by any of the above-mentioned parties. Draft laws are also submitted by the president and the prime minister.

The parliament could be dissolved by the absolute majority of its members based upon a request by one-third of its members or a request by the prime minister approved by the president. The parliament may not be dissolved while questioning the prime minister. In that case the president calls for holding public elections within 60 days of the date of dissolving of parliament. The cabinet resigns but keeps following up daily affairs until a new parliament is elected.

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Executive Supervision

A legislative council called the "Council of Union" will be established and will include representatives of regions and provinces that are not parts of a region to examine bills related to regions and provinces. The Council's composition, membership and specialization will be specified by a law passed by parliament approved by two-thirds majority of its members.

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