The decentralization of government can improve governance by fostering accountability,
participation, and transparency. Throughout the world, governments of developing
nations have turned to local government to build their administrative and institutional
capacity. Out of the 75 developing countries with over five million people, all
but 12 have undertaken some form of decentralization in the past two decades. But
local government in itself does not guarantee better governance. Indeed, it may
create more problems than it solves if it is not carefully crafted to be effective
in meeting local needs.
The concept of decentralization refers to the general process of transferring political
authority and operations to sub-national government bodies. Local government has
three primary benefits. First, local administrators may offer better access and
convenience, placing government institutions directly within the population they
serve. Second, local government creates more opportunities for public participation
and input. And finally, local governments can be more responsive and adaptable to
local conditions, resulting in higher efficiency.
Theorists view devolution, delegation, and deconcentration as three possible ways
of developing local government from above in centralized systems. Devolution is
the transfer of power to autonomous or semi-autonomous local governments. Delegation
is the transfer of responsibilities for services and administration to local governments
and institutions. Deconcentration is the assigning of implementation of national
programs to lower branches of government. Most decentralization in the Arab region
has been in the form deconcentration. Few Arab governments have considered or implemented
any forms of devolution.
Decentralization is not appropriate in some circumstances and can actually reduce
the quality of governance. In very small states the central government may be able
to achieve greater efficiency through streamlining the national government than
by creating autonomous local entities. Decentralization can lead to losses of economies
of scale and macroeconomic stability. Additionally, fiscal decentralization can
drain central revenues when the national government is unable regulate public spending.
Local governments may lack the capacity and the expertise found in national institutions.
These challenges reinforce the importance of effective planning and design in undertaking
Decentralization without careful attention fiscal decentralization can seriously
compromise reform efforts. Without control over their own revenues and budgets,
local governments cannot operate autonomously. Local revenues create capital capacity
that can be redistributed back into the public infrastructure and the general economy.
The political transaction of collecting the local taxes, which are then translated
into building the local economic system, is critical to creating effective local
political economies. But implementing effective taxation and revenue schemes presupposes
a lengthy historical process of state building. Most local governments in the Arab
region lack an effective taxation bureaucracy or the capital capacity to initiate
local development. Arab local governments also trail in their share of public expenditures,
averaging only 5% compared to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) average of 20%.
Governments alone cannot achieve decentralization. The United Nations Development
Programme emphasizes that good governance requires participation by the state, civil
society, and private businesses. Without participation from the ground up, local
governments will not be able to accurately structure or administer public services.
Popular participation is necessary to create accountability within local institutions
and responsiveness to the community's needs. Dialogue and debate between private
business and local government officials increases transparency and coordination
between the public and private sectors.