View Publications (Select):
Topic:

Type:

Provider:
Search

Tip: Enter a search term (word or phrase, as in Google) and press ENTER or click the search button

Skip Navigation LinksPOGAR > Resources > Publications > All Countries

Legislature: All Countries (Type: Studies, Reports, Books and Programmes, Provider: All)

Sort by Year | Sort by Title
Egypt - Developing a Parliamentary Research Service, the Experience of Egypt [English]. 1999
Overview of the Egyptian experience in developing a parliamentary research services by Wafaa Ali Abdel Elah, Research Service, People's Assembly of Egypt.
 
Egypt - Egyptian Center for Women's Rights [English][Arabic].
Is a Cairo based independent non- governmental organization established in April 1996. The center carries out programs and projects at the level of women’s leadership and at the grass roots level, which aim to improve the political and social status of women.
 
Egypt - Egyptian Legislation and Jurisprudence [English][Arabic][French]. 2006
A handbook of the project that established the legislation and jurisprudence data base in Egypt.
 
Egypt - Egyptian Political Parties, Constraints and Limitations: Report of the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights [Arabic]. 2007
An article published by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights discussing the difficulties inherent in the Egyptian partisan sphere, mainly concerning the formation of new political parties and the restricting legislative environment. The article also draws attention to impediments regarding issuing favorable laws as a result of the ruling party's large influence on the ratification of laws.
 
Egypt - Official Structures in the Service of Research and Information in the Egyptian Parliament [English]. 2005
The Egyptian Parliament offers technical and administrative assistance to its members through different organs, with the main objective of empowering MPs to carry out their legislative and control tasks and in this study an attempt is made to describe and evaluate the official institutional structures that offer information and research services in Parliament.
 
Egypt - Parallel Structures for Parliamentary Research and Studies in Egypt [English]. 2005
This report reviews the parallel information structures of the Egyptian People’s Assembly. It seeks to place these structures within a theoretical framework that facilitates a comparison with other cases in the area of performance evaluation and raising alternatives to enhance information efficiency in parliamentary debates.
 
Egypt - Political Empowerment of Egyptian Women, is Quota the Solution ?!! [Arabic]. 2009
This study is an overview of the political participation of women in Egypt. The study enumerates the rights gained by women after the July revolution, notably the right of nomination and election. It also monitors the constraints which stand in the face of the political empowerment of women in International Law and the Egyptian Constitution. The study discusses the quota in the international conventions, as well as the presence of women in the legislative, executive and judicial branch.
 
Egypt - The Parliament Press in Egypt 2000 – 2003: A Mechanism for increasing Awareness of the Legislative Institution [English]. 2005
This study raises a number of questions that seek to give depth to the debate on the role of the parliamentary press. The analysis in this paper focused on a period from 2000 to 2003, which includes a national parliamentary election round in 2000. This election has seen some new phenomena that have left their mark on parliamentary life thereafter.
 
Egypt - The Women's Movement in Egypt with Selected References to Turkey [English]. 2002
This report ,published by UNRISD, discusses the historical backgrounds and contemporary contexts of women’s movements in Egypt and Turkey. It describes the potential of women’s movements to become a force for democratization in the contemporary Middle East and a champion of women’s rights.
 
Egypt - Women's Right in Focus: Egypt [English]. 2005
This report presents the findings of a study on public attitudes towards women's rights in Egypt. It discusses the status of women's political, educational, economic, and legal rights, as well as the role of the media and information technology in expanding the information available to women on news, politics, and local affairs. The study finds that progress for women is hindered by gaps in public knowledge about basic rights, as well as by institutional weaknesses in Egypt’s government.
 
Iraq - Building a New Iraq: Ensuring Women’s Rights [English]. 2005
This report, published by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, discusses women’s political participation in Iraq, including their role in building sustainable peace in the country and drafting the new constitution. It also includes biographies of some Iraqi women leaders and list of publications related to the new role of women in Iraq.
 
Iraq - Democracy in the Making: Key Options in Iraq's Democratization Process [English][Arabic]. 2005
This policy paper is aimed at the Iraqi political and social leadership representing different and conflicting visions, but is also relevant to those sectors of the international community called to provide technical, financial and political support to the transition process in Iraq. This policy paper addresses three discrete areas: constitution building processes, electoral system design and political parties in divided societies. It is based on a comparative global analysis undertaken by IDEA. It is meant to offer practical options on how to strengthen democratic institutions and processes.
 
Iraq - Developing Iraq’s Security Sector The Coalition Provisional Authority’s Experience [English]. 2005
This report, published by Rand, concerns itself with the efforts to build both forces and institutions in Iraq. It provides a historical record of the coalition’s experience and seeks, insofar as is possible at this early stage, to draw lessons from the successes and failures of that experience.
 
Iraq - Executive, Legislative and Judicial Powers, Checks and Balances and Judicial Independence: A Paper Prepared for the UN Project on Constitution Making in Iraq [Arabic]. 2005
This study, prepared by NDI, focuses on the distribution of power between the legislative, executive and judicial branches of the state.
 
Iraq - Manual on Legislative Drafting for the Iraqi Council of Representatives [Arabic]. 2008
This manual was prepared by Mr. Mahmoud Sabra, one of the Arab region’s leading experts in legislative drafting, and was published by UNDP-POGAR as part of the project entitled “Strengthening the Capacities of the Iraqi Council of Representatives”. This manual is designed specifically for the Iraqi Council of Representatives, and contains guidelines on how to read, analyze, and draft a bill. The purpose of the Manual is to help members of the Iraqi Council of Representatives and legal councilors perform their duties as efficiently and effectively as possible.
 
Iraq - Winning the Peace: Women’s Role in Post-Conflict Iraq [English]. 2005
Report published by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars including findings and recommendations discussed at the Winning the Peace: women's role in rebuilding Iraq conference. It describes Iraqi women's role in reconstructing post-conflict Iraq and their participation in governance, legislature, and civil society.
 
Iraq - Women’s Rights Under Attack: Occupation, Constitution and Fundamentalisms [English]. 2006
This publication highlights the work that Iraqi women are doing to try to amend the new Iraqi Constitution
 
Iraq - Women's Rights in the New Constitution of Iraq: Perspectives from the Afghan Constitutional Experience [Arabic]. 2003
This study published by NDI, discusses women's rights in the new Iraqi constitution. The study takes women's rights in the new Afghani constitution as a case study, and sheds light on women's right in different constitutions as well. It concludes with recommendations on how to embed women's right in the new constitution.
 
Jordan - First Class: Profiles of Women MPs and Senators in Jordan 2003-2007 [English][Arabic]. 2006
NDI produced this report, profiling Jordanian women serving in the lower and upper houses of Parliament between 2003 and 2007.
 
Jordan - Jordanian Woman's Participation in Politics: Analytical Study of the Parliamentary conduct in the Fourteenth Parliament Council [Arabic]. 2007
This report, published by the United Nations Development Fund For Women (UNIFEM) in collaboration with the National Committee for Women, aims at shedding light on and studying the situation of Jordanian women in terms of political participation and the role of political will in guaranteeing the presence and integration of women in decision-making processes in Jordan. It also deals with the obstacles and challenges facing women in politics, and places emphasis on women political participation in Jordan since the beginning of 2003 when Provisional Law No. 34, dated 2001on Parliamentary Elections, known as the Women Quota Law, was amended. The report contains an anaysis and comparison between the strengths and weaknesses in the law within the national context.
 
Jordan - Jordanian Women Experience in Accessing Parliament [Arabic].
This study stresses on the importance of women access to the legislature with particular emphasis on the experience of Jordanian women in this regard. It also analyzes the reasons behind women's failure and sets out the required measures for strengthening their capacity to access parliament.
 
Jordan - Public Opinion, Terrorism and the Jordanian Security Sector [English]. 2008
This study aims to analyze the relations between the different branches of the Jordanian state, civil and military based on a compilation of surveys and public polls.
 
Jordan - The Economic Advancement of Women in Jordan: A Country Gender Assessment [English]. 2005
This study prepared by the World Bank, discusses the women economic advancement in Jordan. It sheds light on the gender issues in human development, and highlights the legal, policy, and institutional frameworks for women's economic advancement and political participation.
 
Jordan - The Main Actors in the Law – Making Process for Economic Reform: An Assessment of their Strengths & Weaknesses to Participate in the Law – Making Process in Egypt [English]. 2005
After launching the Economic Reform and Stabilization Adjustment Program (ERSAP) in 1991 the Egyptian government embarked on a new initiative to reform and upgrade the legislative framework. This paper highlights the role of the Executive, the Legislative and civil society, showing the weaknesses and the strengths of the process.
 
Jordan - Towards Political Empowerment of Jordanian Women [Arabic]. 2006
This study covers three major topics: first, women and international instruments of human rights; second, Jordan’s position in respect of these instruments; and third, how women’s legal status has been affected by these instruments. The report also identifies areas if legal concern relevant to the legal status of Jordanian women. The report also examines the status of women in Jordan in other areas including education, health, economic empowerment and the family. The report recognizes that considerable achievements have been made in terms of improvements in women’s status, but nevertheless highlights areas of particular concern in respect of women’s health and economic stats.
 
Kuwait - Kuwait: Citizens Attitude towards Women Political Participation [Arabic]. 2007
This research sheds light on the attitudes of Kuwaiti citizens towards the political participation of women. It mainly aims at exploring the public's vision of women as political actors in the country and of women's participation during past elections, as well as the factors affecting voters' choice during the elections of the Majlis Al-Oumma. The study consisted of seven focus groups of voters aged between 24 and 40, from both sexes and belonging to both the sedentary and nomadic population in Kuwait. In-depth meetings were also held with eight Kuwaiti opinion leaders who are active in the field of the media, education, law, economy and politics.
 
Kuwait - Women's Right in Focus: Kuwait [English]. 2005
This report presents the findings of a study on public attitudes towards women's rights in Kuwait. It examines public sentiment on Kuwaiti women's right to vote, women as political candidates, and Kuwait's political system. It also explores Islam's role in debates on women's rights and the resistance to outside efforts to advance women's political rights in Kuwait.
 
Lebanon - Government Institutions Strengthening Component Local Government and Parliament Project Report [English]. 2004
This report highlights the achievements of the Center for Legislative Development of the State University of New York at Albany (SUNY/CLD) since 1993, in providing technical and administrative assistance to the Government of Lebanon through the Lebanon Relief and Redevelopment Project
 
Lebanon - Lebanon – Parliament Proceeding in 2004 [Arabic]. 2004
This report contains a brief on the outcome of the parliament’s legislative and supervisory roles, on administrative development in 2004, in addition to the parliament’s Arab and international relations.
 
Lebanon - Lebanon – Parliament Proceedings in 2003 [Arabic]. 2003
This report contains a brief on the role played by the Lebanese parliament and parliamentarian diplomacy, in addition to its legislative and supervisory task.
 
Lebanon - Parliamentary Work [Arabic]. 2005
Publications of the parliament
 
Lebanon - The Lebanese Parliament: Dynamics and Assessment, 1997 [English]. 1997
English abstract of the monograph "The 1992-1996 Lebanese Parliament" published originally in Arabic by the Lebanese Center for Policy Studies. The research focused on the performance of the Lebanese Parliament as the legislative branch of the government.
 
Mauritania - Handbook for Mauritanian Senators [Arabic][French]. 2009
This publication, prepared by the Mauritanian Senate in collaboration with UNDP, provides a practical handbook for the Mauritanian senators. It sheds light on the Mauritanian institutional structure, and discusses the Senate’s organization, and the different stages of the legislative process. It also discusses the oversight role of the Senators.
 
Mauritania - Handbook for Parliamentarians on Public Finance: Budgetary procedures, glossary and guidebook [Arabic][French]. 2009
This handbook published by the Mauritanian parliament in cooperation with UNDP, explains the process of preparing the national budget. It defines the national budget and sheds light on the legislative framework governing it. It clarifies the steps of preparing the budget, voting on it, and conducting oversight over its implementation. The publication also includes general guidelines as well as a glossary of related terminologies.
 
Morocco - Facing Challenges and Pioneering Feminist and Gender Studies: Women in Post-colonial and Today's Maghrib [English]. 2008
A paper published by African and Asian Studies revealing the positive role played by Maghribi women (North African) in the overall development of their countries. It focuses on women's activism in the political sphere and civil society, and their contributions to academia. It sheds light on legislation concerning women, and improvements in women's legal rights whereby the family and nationality laws were amended in the post-colonial period.
 
Morocco - Guide to the Morocco Legal System [English]. 2002
 
Morocco - Moroccan Gender Report 2006 [Arabic]. 2005
This annex to the 2006 economic and financial report on the gender approach stands as a pioneer step in the Arab world. The report sheds light on the gender approach concept and methodology and on some of the elements of the public policies on gender implemented by the various ministries.
 
Morocco - Moroccan Gender Report 2007 [English][Arabic]. 2006
The 2007 Gender Report  published by the Ministry of Finance and Privatization, seeks to assess policies and practices followed by the different ministries, related to gender-responsive budgeting.
 
Morocco - Moroccan Gender Report 2008 [English][Arabic]. 2007
The 2008 Gender Report  published by the Ministry of Finance and Privatization aims to review and analyze the impact of the major sectoral programmes to identify some areas of intervention to better take into consideration the gender dimension in the design of public policies.
 
Morocco - National Democratic Institute - Assistance Program to Morocco [English].
The NDI governance program in Morocco centers on enhancing the capacity and outreach of the legislature and political parties and the drafting and implementing of a code of ethics for government employees and the training of civil servants on compliance with the new code.
 
Morocco - Study on the Representation of Women in Group Elections [Arabic]. 2009
 
Morocco - The Internal Regulations of the House of Representatives: Commented Study [Arabic]. 2008
Study by Mr. Rachid Medouar, Member of Parliament, House of Representatives, Morocco.
 
Morocco - The Process of Issuing the Work Code in Morocco [English]. 2005
The paper seeks to ask about the elaboration process of the Work Code. It retraces the political as well as the juridical (legislative and regulatory) itinerary followed by the Code’s text.
 
Morocco - Women Rights in Focus: Morocco [English]. 2004
Set of nationwide focus groups conducted in Morocco to gain a deeper understanding of popular attitudes towards women's economic, social, political, and legal rights. It aims to facilitate and support national and international efforts to empower women in the Middle East and North Africa.
 
Morocco - Women's Right in Focus: Morocco [English]. 2004
This report, published by Freedom House, presents the findings of a study on public attitudes towards women's rights in Morocco. These findings reveal a general sense of women's progress in Morocco, broad support for women's educational and political rights, changing views in support of women's right to work, and divided views on women's social and family rights. The report also determines that Moroccans’ understanding of Islam strongly informs their views on women’s freedom.
 
Oman - Political Development and the Majlis Ash'shura [English]. 1995
The International Republican Institute (IRI) has conducted a survey of the development of popular governmental participation and the Majlis Ash'Shura (Consultative Assembly) in the Sultanate of Oman, one of the world's last remaining monarchies. This report provides an examination of these Omani political reforms and offers insight into their future.
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - Building a Successful Palestinian State [English]. 2006
This RAND publication examines the key security issues regarding the construction of a Palestinian state, through addressing the external security of such a state
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - Constituency Relations: A Two-Way Street, A Workshop for Members of the Palestinian Legislative Council [English][Arabic]. 1997
This document is a report of the workshop held by NDI in Palestine in 1996 titled "Constituency Relations: A Two - Way Street". The goal of the workshop was to discuss the different methods and tactics available to develop effective relations with the public despite shortages in resources.
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - Entry-Points to Palestinian Security Sector Reform [Arabic]. 2007
This study deals with the reform of the Palestinian security sector. It discusses the legal framework for the governance of such sector, as well as the need for restructuring the security apparatus and for accompanying the security sector reform with a reform of the judiciary. The study also examines civilian control over the sector and the role of illegal armed groups.
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - Legislative-Executive Relations: Governing in Partnership, A Workshop for Members of the Palestinian Legislative Council [English]. 1997
This is a report of the workshop organized by NDI in collaboration with Associates in Rural Development and the Center for Palestine Research and Studies, titled “Legislative – Executive Relations: Governing in Partnership”.
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - National Democratic Institute - Assistance Program to the West Bank and Gaza [English].
The NDI governance program in the West Bank and Gaza centers on building an informed and active civil society and on enhancing the capability of the Palestinian Legislative Council.
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - Organization of the Parliamentary Session: Balancing Democracy and Efficiency [English][Arabic]. 1997
This document is a report of the workshop held by NDI in Palestine in 1997 titled "Organization of the Parliamentary Session: Balancing Democracy and Efficiency". The goal of the workshop was to discuss methods of increasing the efficiency of the plenary procedures, organizing the plenary in the absence of party mechanisms.
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - Parliamentarian’s Guide against Corruption [Arabic]. 2006
This guide, published by Aman-Palestine, discusses corruption in the Palestinian Society and its effects. It provides parliamentarians with practical advices on how to fight corruption.
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - Politics, Security and the Barrier: Palestinian Public Perceptions [English][Arabic]. 2006
This DCAF report examines if, and to what extent, changes in the political and socio-economic environment have affected Palestinian public perceptions of security sector governance. It also explores whether the change of government has altered the way Palestinians' perceive not only their security needs but also the peace process and their trust in political factions and the government.
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - Security Sector Reform (Palestine) [Arabic]. 2005
This paper published by Aman-Palestine, provides an overview of the Palestinian security sector institutions and their relation to the rest of the public sector. It also discusses the different reforms of the security sector included in the reform document proposed the Palestinian Legislative Council in 2002.
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - Security Sector Reform Plan, Reorganization and Restructuring of the Security Sector Institutions [Arabic]. 2005
This paper prepared by Aman – Palestine sheds light on the legal and institutional framework governing the security section in Palestine, and proposes practical reforms such as unification of some overlapping institutions, reorganizing the military hierarchy, and allocating a budget for the security sector.
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - Strengthening the Accountability and Transparency of the Legislative Process in the West Bank and Gaza [English]. 2008
This is a legislative oversight and advocacy skills training report on the roles of Palestinian Civil Society Organizations in the Gaza strip in the legislative process.
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - The First Months of the Palestinian Legislative Council [English]. 1996
This report published by NDI is an assessment of the Palestinian Legislative Council. It provides a snapshot of the PLC in its early weeks. Some of the issues covered are: the role of parties and factions in the PLC, the formal powers of the Palestinian council and constraints on it and its members, organization of the Council and its meetings. it also covered the Council structure, the legislative process, and the legislative executive relations.
 
Occupied Palestinian Territories - The Public Sector in Palestine: Duties and Powers of the Palestinian National Authority Institutions [Arabic]. 2006
This publication produced by Aman-Palestine introduces the legal framework governing public sector institutions in Palestine by reviewing the legislation by virtue of which these institutions operate, be it the ones implemented by the concerned institutions or the administrative legislation organizing their activity. The study identifies the weaknesses and strengths in the legal situation of public sector institutions in Palestine, as well as the problems faced by these institutions and the obstacles preventing them from discharging their .duties in an efficient way, and suggests practical measures aimed at improving the efficiency of these institutions.
 
Saudi Arabia - The Saudi Security Apparatus: Military and Security Services-Challenges and Developments [English]. 2004
This study, published by DCAF, highlights the challenges that Saudi Arabia faces in reforming its security sector apparatus and discusses the means to redefine some aspects of its security sector in order to meet these challenges.
 
Sudan - Stewards of Peace. The Role of Women and Youth in Post-Conflict Sudan: Report on a Series of Workshops with Sudanese Women and Youth [English]. 2005
This report covers the findings of the series of workshops facilitated by NDI that was designed to strengthen the capacity of Sudanese women and youth to play a full and active role in the future of their country. It focused on three areas: identifying and developing skills necessary to increase participation; providing a platform for cross-cultural dialogue; and creating an agenda for advocacy.
 
Sudan - Towards Achieving the MDGs in Sudan: Centrality of Women’s Leadership and Gender Equality [English]. 2005
This publication examines the relationship between women leadership and gender equality. It sheds light on promoting effective participation of Sudanese women in the peace process, and draws conclusions and recommendations on the centrality of women's leadership and gender equality to the MDG's in Sudan.
 
Syria - Towards Political Empowerment of Syrian Women [English][Arabic]. 2006
Women’s representation rate in parliament is one of the most important gender indicators signifying level of women’s political participation, which is still low at the international level 13.4% and also in the Arab World 4.6%. During the past three decades, women’s status in Syria has faced radical changes in the area of strengthening women’s capacity in education, work and her general participation. This study is an attempt to examine the political system in Syria and identify obstacles and challenges facing women’s political empowerment.
 
United Arab Emirates - Women and Political Participation in the United Arab Emirates [English]. 2007
This study is an attempt to examine the political system in the United Arab Emirates and identify obstacles and challenges facing women’s political empowerment including the degree of prejudice of Emirati society towards women political empowerment.
 
United Arab Emirates - Women and Political Participation in the United Arab Emirates: Political Participation of Women From the Perspective of the Educated Members of the Bahraini Society [English][Arabic]. 2007
This study, published by the United Nations Development Fund For Women (UNIFEM) and the Supreme Council for Women, is an attempt to examine the political system in Bahrain and identify obstacles and challenges facing women’s political empowerment including the degree of prejudice of Bahraini society towards women political empowerment.
 
Yemen - Building Democracy in Yemen: Women's Political Participation, Political Party Life and Democratic Elections [English][Arabic]. 2005
This report discussed the political participation by Yemeni women, the constitutional and legal Bases of Party Pluralism in Yemen and the impact of their implementation.
 
Yemen - Enhancing the Role of Women: UNDP Yemen Electoral Support Programme [English]. 2004
Presentation published by the United Nations Development Programme - Yemen Electoral Support Programme. It focuses on UNDP's efforts to enhance women's politcal participation in Yemen. The presentation outlines the programmes' strategic areas of support in the elections process with a particular focus on voter education.
 
Yemen - Report on the Status of Women in Yemen Five Years After Beijing 1995 [English]. 2002
The report published by The United Nations Development Fund for Women - Arab States evaluates the status of women in Yemen five years after the signing of the Beijing Platform for Action. It reviews women's involvement in a number of areas including their involvement in decision-making processes.
 
Yemen - Strengthening Parliaments in Conflict/Post-conflict Situations: Case Study on Yemen [English]. 2005
Study presented by Mr. Ahmed Saif, Professor of politics at the American university of Sharjah
 
Yemen - The First Democratic Gathering: Women and Yemeni Political Parties [Arabic]. 2005
This publication, prepared by the Montada Al Shaqeq Al Arabi for Human Rights, discusses the issue of women and political parties in Yemen and sheds light on the general context in which political parties emerged. It also includes a field study aimed at taking stock of women’s experience with political parties, as well as of the expressed roles, expertise, obstacles and ambition, in addition to personal testimonies from women belonging to different political parties who talk about their experience within their respective parties.
 
Yemen - The Fourth Democratic Gathering: Women in Yemeni Local Councils [Arabic]. 2005
This study reviews the experience of Yemeni women in local councils in general and focuses on the experience of women during the elections and the mandate of local councils in order to assess the actual performance and identify problems and achievements. The publication also highlights the personal experience of some of the local councils members during elections, and the problems they are faced in the course of their activity as local councils’ members, and includes a legal review and comments on the law on local councils.
 
Yemen - Women’s Experience with Elections: The National Consultative Meeting with Female Candidates to the Parliamentary Elections in Yemen [Arabic]. 2005
This publication, prepared by the Montada Al Shaqeq Al Arabi for Human Rights, sheds light on the political participation of Yemeni women by conducting a gender-based political, cultural and historical analysis of the electoral programs of political parties and organizations. It also refers to the experience of seven women who stood for the legislative elections in 2003 and who talked objectively of the obstacles preventing women’s participation in the electoral process in Yemen.
 
Arab Countries - Arab Parliamentarians Handbook for Empowering Youth [Arabic]. 2008
This handbook, published by UNDP in cooperation with the Arab Scout Parliamentary Union, and the Parliamentary Studies Programme at Cairo University, highlights the basic principles guiding youth policies, and provides Arab legislators with a draft youth law as well as an explanatory note on the draft law.
 
Arab Countries - Arab States: Security Sector Institutions and Crisis of the Transition Towards Democracy [Arabic]. 2005
This paper published by Aman-Palestine, discusses the obstacles faced in the democratic reform of the security sector in the Arab states.
 
Arab Countries - Arab Women and Political Participation [Arabic].
Arab Women and Political Participation is one of the major Arab websites as it ensures daily stocktaking of women's political activity in the Arab world. The website aims at familiarizing Arab women with their political rights, and supporting their itinerary by providing references, documents, news and activities. It is one of the websites of the Sisterhood Is Global Institute/Jordan.
 
Arab Countries - Assessing Legislation: A Manual for Legislators [English][Arabic]. 2003
This guide is coauthored by Robert B. Seidman, Ann Seidman, and Nalin Abeyesekere. UNDP funded its translation to Arabic. It aims at providing the legislators with the necessary tools that would help them in assessing legislation and proposing them to promote social and democratic change in their countries. The guide highlights and discusses several important topics such as the role of the legislators in facilitating socio-political and economic change, the legislative theory, and the methodology for problem solving, in addition to assessing the technical sufficiency for the proposed law.
 
Arab Countries - Building the Capacity of Parliamentary Institutions and Promoting Citizen's Participation in the Arab Countries: Jordan - Iraq - Lebanon [Arabic]. 2009
This publication includes Research results and workshops organized by UNDP-POGAR in partnership with IPALMO institute within the framework of the project Building Capacities of Parliamentary Institutions and Promotion of Citizen's Participation in the Arab Countries and Middle East. The project aims at strengthening the capacity of Parliament in Iraq, Jordan and Lebanon in relation to its role in fighting corruption, promoting decentralization and in improving its representative function.
 
Arab Countries - Centre of Arab Women for Training and Research [English].
CAWTAR, located in Tunis-Tunisia, was created in 1993 as an independent international institution, working on a regional basis to undertake research on Arab women and the issues affecting them. Its mission is to provide gender related information to help raise awareness among planners of the need to ensure that women are brought into decision-making at all levels, and enabled to contribute to the development process effectively.
 
Arab Countries - Comparative Study between the UN Convention on Fighting Corruption and Arab Legal Instruments [Arabic]. 2005
This is a comparative study on the UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), which was signed in 2003, and the compatibility of legislation in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, United Arab Emirates and Yemen with the provisions of this Convention.
 
Arab Countries - Democracy in the Arab World [English][Arabic]. 2004
This report is based on the outcome of a project carried out by International IDEA, in cooperation with the Arab NGO Network for Development (ANND), aimed at discussing democratic reform in Egypt, Jordan and Yemen. Some of the main topics discussed are electoral laws and systems, enhancing women’s political participation, political parties, and the challenges and opportunities facing political reform in the Arab world.
 
Arab Countries - Democracy in the Arab World: Challenges, Achievements and Prospects [English]. 2000
Based on a round-table discussion organized by IDEA, this is a review of democracy in the Arab World Region during the nineties looking at the main challenges in Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Yemen. It analyzes issues such as the role of religion in politics, the participation of women, globalization, elections, democratic institutions and the freedom of association.
 
Arab Countries - Draft International Law for Youth: Arab Countries and Legislations Related to Youth Rights and Duties. Second Study [Arabic]. 2007
This study was prepared by the Arab Scout Parliamentary Union, and the Parliamentary Program at Cairo University, with the support of UNDP. The study aims at observing the best practices in Arab legislation (focus of this study), as well as modern international legislation (the focus of the first study “Draft International Law for Youth: Survey of International Youth Related Legislation”) as it is a legislative and institutional mechanism for Arab youth empowerment.
 
Arab Countries - Draft International Law for Youth: Survey of International Youth Related Legislation. First Study [Arabic]. 2007
This study was prepared by the Arab Scout Parliamentary Union, the Parliamentary Program at Cairo University, with the support of UNDP. The study aims at observing the best practices in modern international legislation (the focus of this study) as well as Arab legislation (focus of the second study “Draft International Law for Youth: Arab Countries and Legislation Related to Youth Rights and Duties”), as it is a legislative and institutional mechanism for Arab youth empowerment.
 
Arab Countries - General Principles for Political Parties Legislation in the Arab Countries [English][Arabic]. 2009
This pamphlet includes a set of guiding principles for political party legislation in the Arab region which were debated and adopted by the Working Group on Parliament and Reform of Political Parties Legislation, launched by the UNDP’s Parliamentary Development Initiative in the Arab Region (PDIAR). Members of the Working Group were comprised of more than 40 parliament members from: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territories, and Yemen, in addition to researchers and experts on the topic. These guiding principles could serve as a basis for reviewing current legislation or drafting new political party laws in the Arab Region. They could also contribute to the institutional development of political parties within a functioning democratic governance system, and reinforce political participation as well as political pluralism.
 
Arab Countries - Greater Arab Free Trade Zone, 4 years After Implementation [Arabic]. 2001
Implementing the 4th of the gradual reduction of customs, tariffs and taxes.
 
Arab Countries - Internal Organization of the Legislative Branch [English].
A United Nations Development Programme review of the internal structure and organization of parliament, and its effect on the different parliamentary functions.
 
Arab Countries - Leading to Choices: A Leadership Training Handbook for Women [English][Arabic]. 2002
This Handbook was drafted by the Women’s Learning Partnership For Rights, Development, and Peace (WLP), the Association Démocratique des Femmes du Maroc (ADFM), BOABAB for Women’s Human Rights of and the Staff for Palestinian Women Issues. The Handbook deals with a new form of vertical leadership and democracy which contributes to women empowerment and discusses many important topics, particularly: developing the self for leadership capacities, communicating with other and building learning partnerships.
 
Arab Countries - Legislative Drafting for Democratic Social Change: A Manual for Drafters [Arabic]. 2005
This guide is coauthored by Robert B. Seidman, Ann Seidman, and Nalin Abeyesekere. UNDP funded its translation to Arabic. It aims to provide guidance to the legislators during the technical procedure of legislation. It highlights several important topics such as the relation between the legislative drafting, good governance, and the process of development. It discusses the technique for preparing a research report, and methods for drafting a draft law. The guide also sheds light on the role of legislative drafting in promoting good governance.
 
Arab Countries - Parliament in the Arab Countries - Monitoring and Analyzing [Arabic]. 2007
This book delves into the status of parliaments in each of Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Egypt. This project was implemented by the Arab Center for the Development of the Rule of Law and Integrity (ACRLI) in cooperation with the International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) and the United Nations Development Programme - Programme on Governance in the Arab Region (UNDP-POGAR).
 
Arab Countries - Parliament, the Budget and Gender [English][Arabic][French]. 2004
This guide, published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Inter-Parliamentary Union, the World Bank Institute and the United Nations Fund for Women, discusses some of the basic concepts and issues in budgeting, the budget process and the budget as a tool for accountability. It also provides a gender perspective on the budget and suggests ways to strengthen legislative participation in this domain.
 
Arab Countries - Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector: Principles, Mechanisms and Practices [English][Arabic][French]. 2003
This handbook was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) and the Inter-Parliamentary Union. UNDP funded its translation and publication in Arabic. It deals with the evolving concept of security and the oversight role that parliament plays in this sector, as well as the stages of national security policy cycle and the relevant international regulations. It also highlights the role of civil society and the media in security sector monitoring. The handbook provides an overview of the constituents of the security sector, as well as the tools and instruments that parliaments can use to oversee this sector. It focuses on three main aspects: defense budgeting, security sector personnel and procurement.
 
Arab Countries - Parliamentary Reform [English]. 2003
This book combines the proceedings of the 2nd annual conference of the Parliamentary Program of the Faculty of Economics & Political Science- Cairo University that has been held in cooperation with the Konrad Adenauer Foundation in Egypt. The topic of the conference was parliamentary reform, various papers were presented on related issues.
 
Arab Countries - Reform of the Security Sector in the Arab States [Arabic]. 2006
This paper, published by Aman-Palestine, analyzes the obstacles facing security sector reform in the Arab states such as emergency laws, and budgets. It concludes by highlighting areas of possible reform for example legislation.
 
Arab Countries - Regional Strategies for Empowering Women [English]. 2000
This report, published by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, describes women’s role in influencing legislation in the Middle East and North Africa region. It includes case studies about advancing women’s political participation in the region, reforming family laws, and strengthening women’s negotiation skills.
 
Arab Countries - strengthening the Oversight Function of Arab Parliaments. Developing the Legal Framework [English][Arabic]. 2011
This publication of the Arab Parliamentary Development Initiative in the Arab Region focuses on strengthening the oversight function of Arab parliaments through developing their legal framework. It includes the knowledge products that have resulted from the Regional Working Group on Strengthening the Oversight Function of Arab Parliaments launched by UNDP-PDIAR in 2009. The first part of this publication includes an overview of the evolution of parliamentary life and the oversight function in particular, and a regional study that provides an in-depth comparison of the constitutions and bylaws of the lower houses or unicameral parliaments of 17 Arab countries. It also presents the General Principles for Strengthening the Legal Framework Regulating the Oversight Tools and Mechanisms in Arab Parliaments (translated to English). The second part includes three comparative studies covering the Mashreq (Lebanon, Syria, oPt, Jordan and Iraq), Maghreb and North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Mauritania, and Egypt), and Gulf (Bahrain, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Yemen) regions. The studies scrutinize the legal and constitutional framework regulating the exercise of parliamentary oversight. The last part of the book includes the reports of the regional seminars of the Regional Working Group.
 
Arab Countries - Strengthening the Role of Women Parliamentarians in the Arab Region: Challenges and Options [English]. 1999
Paper presented by Azza M. Karam. March, 1999 at the Meeting on Women and Political Participation: 21st Century Challenges, held in New Delhi, India, 24-26 March 1999.
 
Arab Countries - The First Democratic Forum of Arab Women: The Political Empowerment of Women is the First Step towards Political Reform in the Arab World [Arabic]. 2005
This publication, prepared by the Montada Al Shaqeq Al Arabi for Human Rights, contains 18 working papers from various Arab States that were submitted during the first democratic forum of Arab women held in Yemen in 2004. These working papers deal with the political participation of Arab women in the various Arab countries by addressing the prevalent political regime, feminist movements, the extent to which women are represented in power and decision-making positions, the mechanism used in order to support the political participation of women, the obstacles preventing women’s effective and efficient participation in politics, as well as the solutions proposed in order to overcome these obstacles.
 
Arab Countries - The General Budget in the Arab Countries: Comparative Study on the Preparation, Approval, Implementation and Monitoring of the Budget in the Arab Countries [English][Arabic]. 2005
This book, published by UNDP, defines the general budget, and sheds light on various aspects such as the budget’s history and development, principles of a good general budget, measures to promote the parliament’s role and the obstacles that limit the effectiveness of parliaments in this domain. The book also discusses methods of preparing the budget in the Arab countries, as well as approving, implementing, and performing auditing and oversight over its implementation. The book concludes by highlighting the final accounts process in different Arab countries.
 
Arab Countries - The Rights and Duties of Members of Arab Parliaments: Comparative Study of Rules of Procedure of Arab Parliaments [Arabic]. 2007
This book, published by UNDP’s Parliamentary Development Initiative, Presents a comparative overview of the rights and duties of Arab parliamentarians in the light of the Arab parliaments’ bylaws. The study discusses the sources of rights and duties of parliamentarians, members of parliaments’ right to join parliamentary committees, speak in general assemblies and committee meetings, and submit draft laws. The study also compares the Arab parliaments’ bylaws concerning parliamentarians’ oversight role of the executive power, parliamentary immunity, resignation, and their duties in attending parliamentary sessions.
 
Arab Countries - The Second and Third Democratic Gatherings: Women and Politics- Religious Insight- Problems and Solutions [Arabic]. 2005
Within the scope of the women political empowerment project implemented by the Montada Al Shaqeq Al Arabi for Human Rights, three national democratic gatherings and an Arab regional forum were organized which discussed the issue of women political participation and empowerment from different perspectives. This publication includes the studies and researches that were discussed during the second and third gatherings. The second gathering aimed at clarifying the vision of Islam regarding the issue of women political participation in an attempt to fight the ideas claiming that Islam opposes women participation in public life and in public decision-making. The third gathering reviewed all of the studies that were discussed during the first and second gatherings, as well as a series of studies that tackled the issue of women political participation in the international law, in all the stages of the national fight against colonialism, and in the social fabric. It also provided visions and mechanism aimed at strengthening women’s role and overcoming the obstacles they come across.
 
Arab Countries - The Upper Houses in Arab Parliaments: Their Representative, Legislative, and Oversight Functions and Their Role in the Budget Process. Comparative Study of the Constitutional and Legal Framework [English][Arabic][French]. 2012
This PDIAR-UNDP publication provides a comparative review of the constitutional and legal frameworks which regulate the representative, legislative, oversight, and budgeting functions of upper houses in Arab bicameral parliaments, namely those of Jordan, Bahrain, Tunisia, Algeria, Sudan, Morocco, Mauritania, Egypt, Yemen, and Oman. This study, which focuses on the prerogatives of Arab upper houses (senates) in contrast with those of lower houses, also reviews the history, position and functions of upper houses in other parts of the world, with a focus on France, Brazil and South Africa.
 
Arab Countries - Towards Developing Arab Parliamentary Work [Arabic]. 2000
This book published by UNDP – POGAR, includes the proceedings of the Symposium on Arab Parliamentary Developmentheld in Beirut in 2000. The papers present a comparison between the Arab parliament’s regulations, as well as a comparison between their legislative functions. It also discusses the oversight role of Arab parliaments, and sheds light on the Lebanese parliamentary life. It also includes a plan for developing Arab parliamentary life, and highlights the challenges and possible domains for institutional development.
 
Arab Countries - Towards Developing Legislative Drafting for Arab Parliaments [Arabic]. 2003
This book, published by UNDP – POGAR, includes the proceedings as well as the final report, of the Workshop on Developing Legislative Drafting for Arab Parliaments, held in Beirut in 2003. Some of the topics discussed are: legislative drafting for good governance; Legislative drafting in Arab countries; methodologies, means and sources for producing legislative texts. It also focuses on the status of legislative drafting in Egypt, and suggests ways to improve legislation and make them clearer. The book concludes with the discussion of the pillars for an efficient and democratic legislative process.
 
Arab Countries - Towards Strengthening the Role of Arab Parliaments in the Reform of Political Party Legislation [English][Arabic]. 2009
This Publication includes the knowledge products of the Working Group on Parliaments and the Reform of Political Party Legislation. In addition to workshop reports, the publication includes the four regional studies that have been commissioned by UNDP on key issues affecting political party life such as party finance and internal organization. The book also includes the General Principles for Political Party Legislation in the Arab Region, around which, the members of the working group have reached a consensus.
 
Arab Countries - United Nations Development Fund for Women - Arab States Regional Programme [English][Arabic].
The UNIFEM Arab States was established in Amman in 1994, as one of 13 regional offices of UNIFEM worldwide. Today UNIFEM Western Asia’s mandate encompasses 13 Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. UNIFEM Arab states projects and initiatives focus on three areas: economic empowerment program, Governance, and women's human rights. The page provides a listing of the objectives of each area, the implementing agencies and a summary review of results.
 
Arab Countries - Women are Citizens Too: The Laws of the States, the Lives of Women [English].
Paper published by the UNDP Regional Bureau for Arab States discussing gender equality within the broader context of citizenship. It provides an analysis and understanding of the tremendous challenges and resistance faced concerning gender equality in the Arab region. The main areas of focus are related to the family, social security, and nationality laws.
 
Arab Countries - Women in Islamist Movements: Toward an Islamist Model of Women's Activism [English][Arabic]. 2007
Through interviews and conversations with women belonging to Lebanon’s Hizballah, Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, and other Islamist organizations across numerous Arab nations, the authors found an energetic debate among women activists on their new found role as political actors.
 
Arab Countries - Women’s Political Participation: Meeting on Women and Political Participation - 21st Century Challenges [English]. 1999
By Azza M. Karam.
 
International - A Comparative Analysis of Security Sector Governance in West Africa: The Ghana Case. [English]. 2005
This paper, published by Frederich Ebert Stiftung, analyzes the manner in which the statutory and non-statutory institutions that form the security sector is governed in Ghana. It provides a historical background and discusses the characteristics of Security Sector, as well as an overview of the legal and institutional frameworks involved. The paper highlights the low level of female involvement in this sector, and the need to re-enforce it.
 
International - A Guide to Legislative Research on the Internet: An Introduction to Parliamentary and Policy Oriented Web Sites [English]. 2000
A guide published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI) providing information on methods to use the internet for legislative research. It provides a list of search engines and websites on a diverse set of topics including constitutions, legislature, general research, ethics, and international treaties.
 
International - A Parliamentarians’ Handbook On The Small Arms Issue [English]. 2004
Study published by The Association of European Parliamentarians for Africa.This publication covers the devastating impact small arms and light weapons have on the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa and gives suggestions about how parliamentarians can address this problem.
 
International - A Training for Trainers Manual. Nominating for Change: Strengthening Women's Position in Political Parties [English]. 2003
This manual is based on a Training of Trainers workshop “Nominating for Change: Strengthening Women’s Position in Political Parties” delivered by NDI. It aims at supporting other programs, which promote women’s political participation – through the nomination process or otherwise. It was prepared as a Training of Trainers tool to prepare participants to deliver workshops that help increase women’s skills to get themselves nominated by their political parties.
 
International - African Parliamentary Poverty Reduction Network [English][French].
The APRN was created under the Africa-Canada Parliamentary Strengthening Program (ACPSP) in response to demands by African parliamentarians for a network that would bring together Members of Parliament (MPs) from all over Africa interested in central issues such as poverty reduction to discuss and share best practices, lessons learned and experiences in that area; as well as to improve their poverty monitoring capacity and increase their policy-making knowledge and build linkages with policy institutes.
 
International - AGORA, Portal for Parliamentary Development [English][French].
AGORA, the Portal for Parliamentary Development, is a one-stop reference center and hub for knowledge sharing on parliamentary development. This multilateral, global initiative brings together parliamentarians, parliamentary staff, donors, practitioners, as well as academics, civil society and the media. The portal aims to be the world’s premier resource for information on parliamentary development. AGORA seeks to consolidate knowledge, expertise and lessons learned, as well as facilitate active collaboration among the worldwide parliamentary development community of practice.
 
International - AMANI Forum - the Great Lakes Parliamentary Forum on Peace [English][French].
The Parliamentarians of the AMANI Forum, work in a coordinated manner towards sustainable peace within their countries and the Great Lakes region. They contribute substantially to conflict prevention and resolution.
 
International - Analysing Legislation: How to Read Bills Critically [English][Arabic]. 1997
This National Democratic Institute (NDI) handbook discusses the simple techniques that parliamentarians can use to better understand proposed legislation. In particular, these methods focus on determining the major issues of policy contained in a bill; identifying the problems or issues that a bill addresses; and analyzing the solutions it proposes.
 
International - Analyzing Legislation with a Gender Perspective [English]. 2007
This presentation, published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI), explains the terms used in gender mainstreaming work such as gender analysis; gender budgeting, gender equality and gender equity. It describes the gaps existing in gender equality and comparative strategies employed by governments to address them. The presentation also includes steps on implementing gender based programming and policy recommendations on overcoming gender disparities.
 
International - Asia Pacific Parliamentary Forum [English].
The Asia Pacific Parliamentary Forum (APPF) acts to promote greater regional identification and cooperation with particular focus on: cooperation for the further advancement of peace, freedom, democracy, and prosperity; open and non-exclusive cooperation for the expansion of free trade and investment, and sustainable development and sound environmental practices; and non-military cooperation, which gives due consideration to issues relating to regional peace and security.
 
International - Assessing the Power of the Purse: An Index of Legislative Budget Institutions [English]. 2006
This paper compares parliamentary capacity for financial scrutiny, through constructing an index using data for 36 countries on budgeting procedures. The index captures six institutional prerequisites for legislative control, relating to amendment powers, reversionary budgets, executive flexibility during implementation, the timing of the budget, legislative committees and budgetary information. Various methods of index construction are reviewed, and the comparative results are analyzed.
 
International - Assessing the Quality of Democracy: A Practical Guide [English]. 2008
A guide published by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA). The guide provides the means for a comprehensive assessment of democracy on a national level led by governments or civil society and academic institutions, rather than depending solely on conventional measures such as external country rankings and elections. The guide highlights how the parliament is formed, its functioning and its effectiveness can be used as indicators to the level of Democracy.
 
International - Breaking Failed-State Cycle [English]. 2008
This paper published by RAND, examines failed states and methods of rescuing them, through providing an integrated approach. It identified the difficulties and attempted to provide solutions mainly to policy makers and legislators.
 
International - Budget and Finance Glossary [Arabic]. 2000
This budget and Finance Glossary is published by NDI and USAID.
 
International - Budgeting for Equity: Gender Budget Initiatives Within a Framework of Performance Oriented Budgeting. [English]. 2003
A Handbook published by the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) discussing the tools needed to determine the impact of government budgets on both sexes. It provides insight into performance-oriented budgeting from a gender perspective. It also includes a model on the means to attain better gender awareness in budget planning..
 
International - Budgeting for Women's Rights: Monitoring Government Budgets for Compliance with CEDAW [English]. 2006
The report published by the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) aims to provide ideas that may be useful in monitoring the compliance of government budgets with the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), including the means by which gender budget analysis may assist in monitoring compliance with CEDAW.
 
International - Building Open and Honest Government: Anti-Corruption Tools [English].
This paper, published by Transparency International Slovakia, discusses corruption in transition countries. It examines the reasons behind the widespread of corruption, and methods to curb it.
 
International - Campaign Schools for Women and Youth: Candidate’s Handbook [English].
A handbook published by the International Republic Institute (IRI) describing a training course for women and youth candidates. It includes aspects ranging from the leadership qualities and attributes of candidates to aspects such as securing campaign funding and finances, membership mobilization, and media relations.
 
International - Candidate Training Manual for Women: Training Manual for Civil Society Organizations [English]. 2005
Training manual published by National Democratic Institute (NDI) designed for trainers of women candidates running for office at the local and national levels. Background information and guidelines are provided on securing party funding, campaign plan and message development, and constituency outreach.
 
International - Challenges of the Security Sector Governance [English]. 2003
This study, published by DCAF, discusses the various challenges facing security sector reform, and sheds special light on violence against women as one of these challenges.
 
International - Civil Society and the Security Sector [English]. 2006
This book, published by DCAF, analyses the role of civil society in the reform and oversight of the security sector governance in post-communist countries as a key aspect of the transition towards democracy. It presents the reader with the theoretical and conceptual background against which the potential role of civil society in security sector governance can be understood and assessed and sheds light on 9 country case studies
 
International - Committees in Legislatures: A Division of Labor [English][Arabic]. 1996
The paper published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI) highlights the importance and responsibilities of legislative committees. It also describes the various types of legislative committees and the regulations governing each.
 
International - Conflict and a Gendered Parliamentary Response [English]. 2006
Article, Published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), advancing the argument that parliaments experiencing situations of crisis or recovery are presented with an opportunity to integrate a gender perspective into their core functions. Within the article is the argument that men and women are differently affected by conflict and hence a gender-sensitive approach is required to understand the differing needs of women and men in crisis situations and recovery processes.
 
International - Consolidated Response on How to Promote a Gender Equality Policy Within a Political Party [English]. 2008
This consolidated response, published by IKNOW Politics, analyses what a gender equality policy means and the key steps as well as concrete measures for developing a political party gender equality policy.
 
International - Consolidated Response: Eliminating Violence Against Women In Politics [English]. 2007
Consolidated response published by the International Knowledge Network of Women in Politics (iKNOWpolitics) addressing violence against women in politics. The main questions raised were on the frequency and sources of such violence, how to reduce such violence and whether any measures have been put in place towards that end such as legislation, policies, or programmes. The ways in which violence against women in politics manifests itself in different cultural contexts is also tackled.
 
International - Constitutional Provisions and Enhancing Participation of Women in Elections [English]. 2004
Paper published by the United Nations Office of the Special Advisor on Gender Issues and the Advancement of Women (OSAGI) discussing the participation of women in post-conflict countries. It examines the obstacles they face in their efforts to participate in elections. The paper also describes the legislative measures taken to enhance the participation of women in several countries, however, it also delineates that the difficulties are hardly experienced at the constitutional level as women generally have the right to vote, but rather at the implementation level.
 
International - Contemporary Challenges for the Intelligence Community [English][Arabic]. 2006
This Backgrounder was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). UNDP funded its translation and publication in Arabic. It sheds light on the changes occurring in the strategic environment and the different actors concerned. It also discusses the implications of these changes on intelligence services, highlights ways in which these issues can be addressed and sets the priorities in facing the recent and current changes and challenges.
 
International - Controlling Corruption: A Parliamentarian's Handbook. Second Edition. [English]. 2000
This handbook, produced jointly by the Parliamentary Centre of Canada and the World Bank, provides a practical reference tool to parliamentarians, members of civil society, and other interested individuals on the issue of globalized corruption and the role of parliaments and parliamentarians in controlling it. It includes chapters on the oversight tools that MPs can use to curb corruption, the role of parliamentary committees, and parliamentarians role in the budgetary process.
 
International - Creation of a Parliamentary Research Centre [English]. 2000
Overview of the Cameroon experience in developing a parliamentary research center by M. Alim Garga, Centre for Parliamentary Research, National Assembly, Yaoundé, Cameroon
 
International - Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict [English]. 1998
The handbook, published by IDEA, provides practical advice on how to broker peace in countries emerging from deep-rooted conflict and outlines options negotiators can draw upon when trying to build or rebuild democracy. The handbook provides a thorough overview of democratic levers - such as power-sharing formulas, questions of federalism and autonomy, options for minority rights, constitutional safeguards and many others.
 
International - Democracy through Partnership between Men and Women - Women in Politics [English].
Overview of the Inter - Parliamentary Union's (IPU) activities related to the implementations of its 1997 Universal Declaration on Democracy calling for a genuine partnership between men and women in the decision making processes and a plan of action to correct the present imbalances in the participation of men and women in political life. It also provides information on women representation in parliaments, and the number of parliamentary positions women hold within the parliament.
 
International - Democracy, Conflict and Human Security: Pursuing Peace in the 21st Century (Volume 1) [English]. 2006
This IDEA publication tackles questions on how democracies can deliver social and economic rights, include all citizens in decision making and reduce poverty. It explores ways in which democratic practice can contribute to the management of contemporary conflicts and promote the realization of security and development objectives. It is aimed at different stakeholders concerned with problems such as social exclusion, the quality of democracy and new forms of authoritarian regimes.
 
International - Democratic Dialogue: A Handbook for Practitioners [English]. 2007
This study, published jointly by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), International IDEA, the Organization of American States (OAS), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) aims to provide decision-makers, dialogue promoters and practitioners with a practical guide on how to organize, facilitate and assess dialogue processes. It combines conceptual and practical knowledge, while providing practitioners with an extensive repertoire of relevant tools, experiences and approaches adapted to the issue at stake, the local context and the stakeholders involved.
 
International - Democratic Governance and Gender: Possible Linkages [English]. 2004
Document published by the United Nations Women and Development Unit - ECLAC on democratic governance and gender equality in Latin America and the Caribbean. It tackles numerous dimensions including trends in women participation in the legislature, participation of women in women movements to develop new constitutions, women's participation in state reform, and policies for increasing women participation in representative offices.
 
International - Democratizing Security in Transition States [English]. 2006
This publication, jointly edited by UNDP Bratislava Regional Centre and DCAF (Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces), is based on recommendations from a 2005 CIS Parliamentary Roundtable and is intended to be a substantive tool for parliamentarians, civil society institutions and donor governments interested in furthering democratization of the security sector.
 
International - Designing an Effective Campaign Plan - Partners in Participation - Women's Campaign Initiative [Arabic]. 2003
This handbook, prepared by NDI, aims at identifying the basic pillars for an electoral campaign and the candidate's role in it such as team building, recruiting volunteers, campaign planning, fund raising, communication, and what is to be done on election day.
 
International - Designing for Equality: Best-fit, Medium-Fit and Non-Favourable Combinations of Electoral Systems and Gender Quotas [English]. 2007
A guidebook published by International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) providing an overview of how electoral systems function with different quotas for women. It assesses how women's representation can be increased under different combinations of electoral systems and quotas.
 
International - Drafting Gender-Aware Legislation: How to Promote and Protect Gender Equality in CEE and CIS [English]. 2003
A handbook published by the United Nations Development Programme providing a comparative overview on gender-aware legislation and practice in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth Independent states. The handbook also describes a comprehensive approach to influencing legislation processes and a detailed checklist for the analysis of such processes.
 
International - Elaborating the Gender Dimension of Democratic Governance [English]. 2006
The training guide, published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), focuses on a human rights-based approach to democratic governance as a framework for women's empowerment and the need for development cooperation to ensure gender equality through developing parliamentary institutions, reforming electoral systems, and public administration.
 
International - Electoral Assistance [English].
This fact sheet, published by UNDP, explains how to promote the involvement of women as informed and empowered voters. It discusses strategies such as supporting civic and voter education campaigns that target women, responding to cultural factors that can inhibit women’s participation, and encouraging political parties to include on their platforms issues that are important to women.
 
International - Empowering Parliaments through the use of ICTs [English]. 2006
A feasibility study conducted by the United Nations Development Program on empowering parliaments on the global and local levels through the use of ICTs as related to legislation, representation, and oversight. The study delineates the inherent difficulties and indicates that e-parliaments are still in the infancy stage even in developed countries. Developing countries on the other hand face greater challenges ranging from access and connectivity to democratization and governance.
 
International - Engendering Constitutions: Gender Equality Provisions in Selected Constitution [English]. 2007
This study provides analysis of global best practices of engendered constitutions using CEDAW as an analytical framework. It also analyzes existing or in some cases, draft constitutional .texts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia according to CEDAW provisions and reviews political party platforms for commitment to gender.
 
International - Engendering Macroeconomics and Macroeconomics Policies [English]. 1998
Article published by UNDP discussing the significance of gender in formulating macroeconomic policies. It explains the effects of gender-biased policies in producing gender inequalities at the micro level which in turn results in macroeconomic implications. It also highlights UNDP's efforts in the area of gender and macroeconomics.
 
International - Enhancing Women's Participation in Electoral Processes in Post-Conflict Countries: Report of the Expert Group Meeting Jan. 2004 [English]. 2004
Report published by the United Nations Special Office on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women (OSAGI). It includes discussions and recommendations by an expert group from OSAGI in the Department of Social and Economic Affairs (DESA), jointly with the Department of Political Affairs in the United Nations. The discussions mainly centered around electoral processes in post-conflict countries, while the recommendations mainly focused on incorporating gender perspectives into election phases in post-conflict countries.
 
International - Equal Participation of Women and Men in Decision-Making Processes, with Particular Emphasis on Political Participation [English]. 2005
This paper, published by the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, describes issues relevant to women's political participation, representation and leadership. It describes strategies to address the disparity between men and women, gender mainstreaming as a cross-cutting strategy, globalization, and women's mobilization strategies.
 
International - Evaluating Parliament: A Self-Assessment Toolkit For Parliaments [English][Arabic][French]. 2008
This toolkit, published by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), provides practical tools that parliaments can use to assess their democratic performance, thus helping parliaments identify their points of strengths and weaknesses, and prioritizes the areas that need further development. Topics highlighted are: the representativeness of parliament; parliamentary oversight over the executive; parliament’s legislative capacity; the transparency and accessibility of parliament; the accountability of parliament; parliament’s involvement in international policy.
 
International - Explaining Women’s Representation: The Role of Legislative Recruitment & Electoral Systems [English]. 2005
Paper published by the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (UN-DAW). It examines the essential steps involved in being elected to countries' parliaments. It also examines the impact of a certain country's level of development, culture, and electoral system on the representation of women.
 
International - Final Report: Political Party Strategies to Combat Corruption Workshop [English]. 2002
This report, published by NDI and The Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats (CALD), includes the proceedings of the workshop titled “Political Party Strategies to Combat Corruption.” The workshop consisted of presentations on the environment in which parties function, the advantages and disadvantages of external legislation, and political party reform strategies and discussed various reform tactics.
 
International - For Ourselves-Women Reading The Qur'an [English]. 2004
This paper reflects the diverse voices of women who interpret the Qur'an and engage with it in the context of their lived realities. It describes the many challenges to monolithic, often male-dominated interpretations of the Qur'an and Muslim laws.
 
International - Freedom of Information and Access to Government Record Laws Around the World [English][Arabic]. 2006
This guide, published by the freedominfo.org, is a part of a series of continuous survey of the freedom of information and access to government record laws around the world.
 
International - From Exclusion to Equality Realizing the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [English]. 2007
This handbook is published by IPU, UN's Department of Economic and Social Affairs, and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. It presents a guide for parliamentarians on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with disability, and its optional protocol. It highlights how MPs can play a role in protect the rights of persons with disabilities through ratifying the convention, drafting new legislation and amending existing laws, and overseeing the budget and the implementation of projects and strategies related to persons with disabilities.
 
International - Gender and Security Sector Reform Toolkit [English]. 2008
Toolkit intended for policy-makers providing a practical introduction on the significance and means of integrating gender issues into security reform. It contains 12 chapters mainly on the reform of defense, justice and penal system, police and border management, and on parliamentary and civil society oversight of the security sector. The toolkit is published by UN-instraw and the Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).
 
International - Gender Budget Initiatives: Strategies, Concepts and Experiences [English]. 2001
This paper, published by UNIFEM, brings together the insights and analysis from the 2001 International Conference on Gender Budget Initiatives in Belgium. It presents the collective experience, analysis and evaluation of more than a dozen international experts on concepts and tools as well as country level experiences.
 
International - Gender Equality for Development Effectiveness [English]. 2008
This paper describes experiences of the CIS countries with integrating gender equality in national policies and budgets. It includes recommendations on improving gender analysis throughout national plans, strengthening links between policy and budgets, improving statistical development, and increasing national civil service capacities.
 
International - Gender in Electoral Processes and Systems [English]. 2004
The Presentation published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) offers recommendations to improve gender sensitivity in electoral processes, outlines legal and institutional frameworks, and lists various means of encouraging political mobilization and participation.
 
International - Gender Indicators Manual [Arabic]. 2004
This manual, published by the United Nations Development Fund For Women (UNIFEM), is part of the leading training manuals aimed at building the capacities of the persons working in statistics departments and provides gender indicators in priority areas of concern such as laws, and access to key decision and policy making decisions. Indeed, indicators are an essential means enabling planners and decision-makers to measure gender inequalities. These indicators also provide the necessary information used by gender statistics experts to claim policies that lead to effective gender equality.
 
International - Gender Mainstreaming in Parliaments: International Best Practices [English]. 2005
Paper Published by ONA-UNDP that serves as a guide for parliamentarians to facilitate gender mainstreaming into the main functions of parliament such as representation, oversight, and legislation. It also highlights emerging gender issues within these areas and ways to integrate them through a gender perspective.
 
International - Gender Responsive Budget Initiatives [English].
This is a collaborative effort between the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), The Commonwealth Secretariat and Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC), aimed at supporting governments and civil society in analyzing national and local budgets from a gender perspective and applying this analysis to the formulation of gender-responsive budgets.
 
International - Gender Responsive Budgeting and Women’s Reproductive Rights: A Resource Pack [English]. 2006
This resource pack, published by UNIFEM/UNFPA, provides relevant knowledge to facilitate mainstreaming gender-responsive approaches into reproductive health programmes, and the inclusion of specific aspects of gender inequality and disadvantage into national policy frameworks. It focuses primarily on health, particularly reproductive health; on HIV/AIDS; and on violence against women as it relates to health services.
 
International - Gender Responsive Budgeting in Education [English]. 2005
This paper, published by Oxfam, uses the gender-responsive budgeting approach to explain how governments and donors can promote gender equality in education through their decisions on financing.
 
International - Gender Responsive Budgeting in Practice: A Training Manual [English]. 2006
The training manual on gender responsive budgeting (GRB) is intended to build the capacity of UNFPA and UNIFEM staff in applying gender budget analysis tools in their programming around gender equality and women’s rights, it will also assist them in supporting gender budget initiatives wherever they exist. The manual specifically seeks to build understanding of GRB as a tool for promoting gender equity, accountability to women’s rights as well as efficiency and transparency in budget policies and processes.
 
International - Gender Responsive Budgeting: Manual for Trainers [English]. 2005
This United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) manual specifically seeks to build understanding of gender responsive budgeting as a tool for promoting gender equity and transparency in budget policies and processes. This version of the Manual has a specific reference to Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS region.
 
International - Genderware – The Council of Europe and the Participation of Women in Political Life [English]. 2003
This paper, published by the Council of Europe, provides a historical background on women political participation in Europe, and discusses some major themes such as: gender equality and democracy, equality through law, positive political action, young women political participation, and women's individual voting rights. the paper concludes by highlighting the importance of political parties as necessary vehicles for democracy.
 
International - Global Capacity-Building Initiative for Parliaments on Sustainable Development [English][French]. 2005
This publication is a report of the conference held by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) in 2005, on parliamentary capacity-building in the field of sustainable development. Experts and legislators from over 70 countries discussed the role that parliaments and parliamentarians can play in the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals and in advancing the agenda for sustainable development.
 
International - Guidebook for Implementing Legislative Programs [English]. 2000
This Guidebook is intended to assist staff implementing legislative programs in developing democracies. Some of the topics discussed are: the training methods; training the members of the legislature in effective committees, oversight and relations with the executive, and dealing with the public. It also sheds light on the National Democratic Institute’s (NDI) experience in legislative drafting, institutional assistance such as staff training, libraries and publications, and information technology.
 
International - Guidebook on Strengthening the Representative Capacity of Legislatures [English]. 2001
Guidebook, prepared for a United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) training staff seminar and published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI), that represents a practical guide for those designing programs to strengthen the representative capacity of legislatures. It surveys various programme options on the issue and potential difficulties that may be encountered during programme implementation.
 
International - Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights [English][Arabic]. 1999
The handbook provides examples of best legislative and regulatory practices gathered from around the world. Best practices are given for each of the twelve guidelines contained in the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights published in 1998 by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). It also presents concrete measures that legislators can take to protect human rights and promote public health in responding to the epidemic.
 
International - Handbook for Parliamentarians Refugee Protection: A Guide to International Refugee Law [English][French]. 2001
This handbook features a comprehensive and educational presentation of international refugee law and its development over the 50-year period following the adoption of the United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. It gives an overview of the issues and explains what parliamentarians can do to help provide protection to refugees and displaced persons. It also proposes model instruments and reference materials to facilitate the work of legislators.
 
International - Handbook for Parliamentarians: CEDAW [English][Arabic]. 2003
This handbook, jointly produced with the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, offers a comprehensive and educational presentation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, which is the most comprehensive international instrument on women's rights, and its Optional Protocol. The handbook presents the background to and content of the Convention and the Optional Protocol and describes the role of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, which secures implementation at the national level.
 
International - Handbook for Parliamentarians: Combating Child Trafficking [English][French]. 2005
Jointly produced by the IPU and UNICEF, this Handbook focuses on concrete measures that parliamentarians can take to combat child trafficking. The Handbook serves as a catalyst for action, providing concrete examples of ways and means of building a protective environment for children and parliamentarians' role in this regard.
 
International - Handbook for Parliamentarians: Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labour [English][French]. 2003
This handbook offers an educational approach to this complex subject and to Convention N° 182, the cornerstone of international action to combat the worst forms of child labour. It provides examples of best practices and gives an overview of what parliamentarians can do to help eradicate the various forms of abuse to which child workers are exposed. It also proposes model instruments and reference material as aids designed to facilitate the work of legislators.
 
International - Handbook on Democracy Assessment [English][Arabic][French]. 2002
The IDEA State of Democracy project has developed a comprehensive methodological tool that interested stakeholders can use to assess the functioning of their own democratic systems. The assessments are aimed at raising public awareness, sparking discussions and helping identify areas for reform. The project does not place countries in a ranking order, but rather focuses on progress or setbacks. The methodology was tested in eight pilot countries.
 
International - Handbook on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of Armed Forces Personnel [English]. 2008
The Handbook, published by DCAF, presents an overview of legislation, policies and mechanisms within the OSCE region, outlining models or ‘best practices’ of how military structures can successfully integrate human rights and fundamental freedoms.
 
International - Handbook on Legislative Strengthening [English]. 2000
The USAID policy handbook, intended to assist the agency's field staff make informed decisions with regard to legislative strengthening strategies, outlines a framework for assessing the needs of legislative bodies and designing appropriate responses.
 
International - Handbook on Parliamentarians and Policies to Reduce Poverty [English].
This handbook, published by the World Bank Institute in collaboration with the Parliamentary Centre, examines the interplay between governance challenge, and the policy efforts being made to highlight action against poverty. It considers the most basic steps in poverty reduction strategies as well as the role of parliament in supporting poverty reduction via budget cycle. It also focuses on broader accountability of the executive and examines the constituency side of the parliamentarian's job. Finally, it discusses parliamentary capacity building to work against poverty.
 
International - Handbook: A Guide to Parliamentary Practice [English]. 2004
This Handbook is a practical guide on parliaments and their working methods. It is a tool for officials of international organisations who interact with parliaments to promote co-operation between these organisations and parliaments. It also provides useful hints to parliamentarians on the work of international organisations and how they can access the resources available in these organisations in the accomplishment of their mandate. The Handbook focuses on the policies and strategies of UNESCO with whose cooperation it has been written.
 
International - Handbook: Child Protection [English][French]. 2004
Jointly produced by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and UNICEF, this Handbook covers a wide range of themes related to child protection, including trafficking of children, violence against children, female genital mutilation, the sexual exploitation of children, children and war, and juvenile justice. The Handbook serves as a catalyst for action, providing concrete examples of ways and means of building a protective environment for children.
 
International - How to Do a Gender - Sensitive Budget Analysis: Contemporary Research and Practice [Arabic]. 1998
This paper, published by USAID and the Commonwealth Secretariat in collaboration with NDI, introduces the budget process and examines in detail the analysis tools used for gender-sensitive budgets, and guides readers on how to prepare a gender-sensitive budget.
 
International - Human Rights - Handbook for Parliamentarians [English][Arabic][French]. 2005
This handbook provides an overview of the general principles governing human rights law and the obligations States have entered into under international this law. It discusses parliamentary action for the promotion and protection of human rights by giving examples of what parliaments and their members can do in this area.
 
International - Human Rights: Handbook for Parliamentarians [English][French]. 2005
Published jointly by the IPU and Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the handbook is intended for parliamentarians who want to familiarize themselves with the framework that has been set up since 1945 by the United Nations and regional organizations to protect and promote human rights. It presents the notion of human rights and the core contents of the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It specifies the obligations of states to protect and promote human rights, and contains suggestions as to action that parliaments and their members may take to contribute to their implementation.
 
International - Increasing Women Political Participation: National Survey on Public Perceptions of Women in Politics [English]. 2003
This study, published by NDI, explores the numerous factors, which maintain the status quo and/or restrain or assist women as socio-political actors. The results point to the varying socio-cultural dynamics that contribute to the advancement and autonomy of Guyanese women. This report emphasizes that while there has been a considerable achievement to improve the political status of women, the social and economic conditions have not facilitated an enabling environment for women’s full participation.
 
International - Intelligence Services [English][Arabic][French]. 2006
This Backgrounder was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). UNDP funded its translation and publication in Arabic. It defines the role of intelligence services, their purpose and activities, and how intelligence is produced. It also sheds light on the types of intelligence services, relevant legislations and the democratic standards that should govern them.
 
International - Inter - Parliamentary Union - Women in National Parliaments [English].
The data- compiled by the Inter-Parliamentary Union on the basis of information provided by National Parliaments- provides world and regional averages of Women representation in parliament (both houses).
 
International - Internal Communication: A Critical Function for Political Parties [English].
A presentation, published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI) explaining the importance of effective communication within political parties and how to maintain such communication within and outside the party. It also explains the significance of effective communication in evaluating progress and the efficient use of human resources, to assess programmes for the future development of the party, and to avoid information overload.
 
International - International Budget Project [English].
The project was formed within the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities in 1997 to nurture the growth of civil society capacity to analyze and influence government budget processes, institutions and outcomes.
 
International - International Electoral Standards: Guidelines for Reviewing the Legal Framework of Elections [English]. 2002
This book, published by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) sets out internationally recognized standards applicable across a range of areas of electoral legislation. This will be useful to those engaged in reviewing existing legal frameworks for elections, or formulating new electoral legislation. These standards are intended as benchmarks to assess whether elections are free and fair.
 
International - International Knowledge Network of Women in Politics (iKNOW Politics) [English][French].
The International Knowledge Network of Women in Politics (iKNOW Politics) is an online workspace designed to serve the needs of elected officials, candidates, political party leaders and members, researchers, students and other practitioners interested in advancing women in politics. It is a joint project of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI), the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA).
 
International - International Seminar for Chairpersons and Members of Parliamentary Human Rights Bodies [English][French]. 2004
This publication is a report of the seminar that was jointly organized by the IPU and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) with the support of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). Members of parliamentary human rights committees gathered to learn from each other, as well as to explore ways and means of enhancing cooperation with different national and international stakeholders.
 
International - Intra-Party Democracy and the Inclusion of Women [English]. 2002
Overview of the commitments by the South African Development Community (SADC) relating to the inclusion of women in decision making and women's representation in parliament and government. The main commitment consists in attaining a 30% quota for women in parliament in SADC countries as a means to guarantee social justice in society at large.
 
International - Issues in Women's Political Empowerment in the Asia-Pacific Region [English]. 1999
Paper published by the Center for Asia-Pacific Women in Politics. The paper is divided into three sections: obstacles to women empowerment including institutional barriers, opportunities to women's empowerment including greater interest in advancing democratic governance, and future directions including creating an enabling environment for women's political empowerment.
 
International - Labour Legislation Guidelines [English][Arabic][French].
The purpose of these Guidelines is to equip those involved in the process of formulating and reviewing labour legislation, as representatives of governments, employers, workers and other interests, with tools to make social dialogue on labour legislation more effective.
 
International - Legal Framing of Democratic Control of Armed Forces and the Security Sector [English]. 2001
This DCAF publication sheds light on a range of issues related to the relationship between law and democratic control of armed forces. The discussions focused on several national case studies, some of the topics discussed were the legal issues of democratic control of armed forces, as well as the societal and cultural prerequisites needed for the promotion and implementation of the democratic control of armed forces. It also examines the relevance of the Western legal expertise for the rule of law in countries in transition, and the civilian and parliamentary control over the military.
 
International - Legislated Gender Quotas or Voluntary Party Quotas? [English]. 2007
Article published by a professor of political science at Stockholm University addressing the question of which type of gender quota would lead to greater women representation, that is, legal gender quotas or voluntary party quotas. The article indicates that the answer to this question is contingent on the nature of political systems the quotas are introduced in.
 
International - Legislative Ethics: A Comparative Analysis [English]. 1999
This National Democratic Institute (NDI) publication discusses the role of legislatures in fighting corruption. It emphasizes the need for an effective ethics regime and compares the ethic regimes in 20 countries. It sheds light on the code of conduct practiced in some countries. It further discusses the financial disclosure requirements, and the conflict of interest restrictions, and different institutional designs and enforcement mechanisms.
 
International - Legislatures and the Budget Process: An International Survey [English][Arabic]. 2003
This NDI paper reviews the trends in developed democracies and in countries making the transition to democracy, and provides examples of nations seeking to alter and improve the process by which they develop and implement their annual budgets. It examines a range of issues that affect legislature’s ability to play a role in influencing the budget such as: the legislative role in the budget process, the timetable for this process, the procedures and structures for legislative budgeting, legislative resources for budget analysis, and the legislative branch oversight capacity.
 
International - Lobbying Parliament: A Guide for NGOs [Arabic]. 2005
This guide, published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI) provides an introduction to various approaches and techniques for lobbying parliament. It includes an overview of lobbying campaigns, tactics for lobbying individual members of parliament and party caucuses, and guidelines for preparing a written submission to a parliamentary committee.
 
International - Making Reconciliation Work: The Role of Parliaments [English][Arabic][French]. 2005
This Guide is published by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA). UNDP funded its translation to Arabic. The guide provides some insights into the particular role played by the parliaments in countries which have experienced or are going through transition from conflict, and highlights the pitfalls to be avoided on the road to reconciliation.
 
International - Military Ombudsmen [English][Arabic][French]. 2006
This Backgrounder was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). UNDP funded its translation and publication in Arabic. It discusses the importance of military ombudsmen and on how to ensure effective functioning of these institutions. It also highlights the German and Canadian experiences in this domain, and reviews other available oversight mechanisms.
 
International - Multiethnic Armed Forces [English][Arabic]. 2006
This Backgrounder was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). UNDP funded its translation and publication in Arabic. It discusses the management of diversity within armed forces and the involved actors in this process. It highlights some of the guiding principles in dealing with ethnic groups in armed forces, as well as some methods followed to ensure balanced representation of the different groups, and some special considerations regarding multiethnic armies in post-conflict settings. Finally it sheds light on the main structural approaches to multiethnicity in the armed forces.
 
International - National Democratic Institute - Global Programs - Women's Programs [English].
National Democratic Institute's Women's Participation are programs aimed at training women to engage in the political processes and hence increase the participation of women in politics and government.
 
International - National Democratic Institute for International Affairs - Democratic Governance- Legislative Development [English].
This is the homepage of the legislative development program of the National Democratic Institute. This program attempts to assist countries that have recently experienced democratic elections but have a legacy of executive branch rule. It also engages in advisory assistance to developing legislatures.
 
International - National Security Policy [English][Arabic]. 2006
This Backgrounder was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). UNDP funded its translation and publication in Arabic. It focused on national security policy, and the reasons why a country needs to adopt one. The backgrounder also reviews the legal framework and explains how a national security policy is structured and formulated, the challenges which need to be taken into account while formulating an effective national security policy, and means to implement it. Finally it outlines the principles for an effective and democratic national security policy.
 
International - National Security Policy-Making and Gender [English]. 2008
Toolkit published by UN-instarw and the Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). It may be useful to parliamentarians involved in security policy making processes. It highlights the benefits and opportunities of integrating gender issues into national level security policy making as that would increase the participation and the representation of all sectors of society that may be affected by the issue.
 
International - Nationality and Statelessness: A Handbook for Parliamentarians [English][French]. 2005
Published jointly by the IPU and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the handbook provides parliamentarians with a broad description of the international principles regulating nationality and statelessness; discusses the rights and obligations of stateless persons as protected under international law; highlights the main causes of statelessness and suggests practical steps parliamentarians can take to help reduce the incidence of statelessness.
 
International - Nominating for Change: Strengthening Women's Position in Political Parties. A Training of Trainers Manual [English]. 2003
This manual is based on a workshop organized by NDI Indonesia Women’s Program support for the Indonesian Political Women’s Caucus, a cross-party national organization that NDI has been working with since its inception. Both the upcoming national election in 2004 and the legislative push to have a 30% quota of women nominated by their respective parties presented opportunities for women to increase their political presence with parties.
 
International - Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers [English].
NISAT works through providing a database of resources and establishing a network of partner organizations to help block the spread of small arms to areas where they are likely to be used in warfare, armed violence or human rights abuses.
 
International - One Chamber or Two? Deciding Between a Unicameral And Bicameral Legislature [English]. 1996
This research paper, published by the National democratic Institute (NDI), highlights the structure of legislative chambers and discusses the question of cameral selection. Its sheds light on the unicameral and bicameral legislatures, patterns of legislative structures and legislatures in practice. It discusses methods of reconciliation in a bicameral system as well as cameral change.
 
International - Oversight and Guidance: The Relevance of Parliamentary Oversight for the Security Sector and its Reform [English]. 2003
This DCAF publication includes a collection of articles on foundational aspects of parliamentary oversight of the security sector. The articles examine a wide range of topics such as the relevance of parliamentary oversight for security sector reform, the principles and practices of democratic control of armed forces, and the national and international parliamentary dimension.
 
International - Panorama of Parliamentary Elections 2005 [English][French]. 2006
The Panorama, published by IPU, offers a revealing snapshot of the major electoral events of the preceding year. It provides an eight-page overview of the year's direct parliamentary elections, illustrated by graphics on the situation of parliaments in the world, voter turnout, power shifts and women 's representation. The brochure also presents key statistics from the IPU's database on national parliaments, accompanied by brief thematic narratives.
 
International - Parliament and Access to Information: Working for Transparent Governance [English]. 2004
This report explains how implementing effective freedom of access to information helps increase the flow of information to the people, improve the performance of parliaments and media outlets in their respective democratic duties and strengthen the societies in which we all live.
 
International - Parliament and Democracy in the Twenty-First Century. A Guide to Good Practice [English][Arabic]. 2006
This guide, published by IPU, outlines the main characteristics that parliaments should have to be considered democratic: representativeness, transparency, accessibility, accountability, and effectiveness. it also provides examples of how parliaments from all over the world fulfill these characteristics.
 
International - Parliament and the Media: Building an Informed Society [English]. 2003
This report is issued by the World Bank Institute (WBI) and the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA) that are seeking to urge Parliaments and their Members to champion the protection of the media in support of good governance and democracy.
 
International - Parliamentary Accountability and Good Governance: A Parliamentarian's Handbook [English].
This handbook contains a collection of essays and country case studies that focus on the role of parliament in holding the executive branch accountable. Among the issues discussed are oversight tools that MPs can use, their role in the budget, and the importance of working with civil society.
 
International - Parliamentary Committees on Defence and Security [English][Arabic]. 2006
This Backgrounder was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). UNDP funded its translation and publication in Arabic. The backgrounder sheds light on parliamentary committees on defence and security. It defines what distinguishes the work of these committees from other committees, and which committees are involved in defense and security. In addition it outlines the mandate and role of these committees, and what factors increase their efficiency. It also identifies how these committees organize themselves internally, and how the division of labor among them differs in various countries, listing some examples.
 
International - Parliamentary Control of Military Missions: Accounting for Pluralism [English]. 2006
This paper, prepared by DCAF, is interested in explaining why decision-making procedures, and parliamentary involvement in particular, have been so diverse in the first place. Put differently, this paper asks why democracies differ as regards the level of parliamentary control over military missions.
 
International - Parliamentary Human Rights Committees [English][Arabic]. 2005
This paper, published by NDI, focuses on the parliamentary human rights committees. It examines their power and mandates and their relation to other human rights actors. It discusses the best practices regarding the conduct of investigation and the legislative initiatives they can make. Finally, it suggests possible tools that members of parliament can use to pursue human rights issues.
 
International - Parliamentary Oversight of Gender Equality Handbook [English]. 2006
This handbook, published by the World Bank Institute in collaboration with the Parliamentary Centre, is designed to assist parliamentarians in carrying out their oversight role on gender. It discusses the definition of gender, identifies some of the topical gender issues for clarification, provides an overview of microfinance, and focuses on some security issues that directly affect women. It also addresses the question of MDGs and poverty, focuses on the budget as a mechanism for allocating resources in society, and establishes the link between gender issues and the role of parliamentarians. It also examines the role of Women parliamentarians in committees.
 
International - Parliamentary Oversight of Intelligence Services [English][Arabic]. 2006
This Backgrounder was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). UNDP funded its translation into Arabic and publication. It discusses the role of parliament in oversight of intelligence services and identifies the five layers of intelligence scrutiny. It also sheds light on the experience of parliamentary oversight committees in four countries, and outlines the oversight mandate of the parliament, the key challenges facing it and how these challenges can be addressed.
 
International - Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender [English]. 2008
A toolkit published by United Nations INSTRAW and the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). It provides a thorough explanation of the significance of gender in parliamentary oversight of the security sector. Includes sections on gender equality in decision making and on women's representation in parliament and parliamentary security decision making.
 
International - Parliaments as Peacebuilders: The Role of Parliaments in Conflict-Affected Countries [English]. 2005
Paper published by the World Bank Institute.
 
International - Parliament's Role in Defence Budgeting [English][Arabic][French]. 2007
This Backgrounder was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). UNDP funded its translation and publication in Arabic. This backgrounder discusses the role that the parliament plays in the different phases of the preparation of the defense budget, as well as overseeing its execution. The backgrounder also highlights the importance of promoting the role of the parliament in this area, how this role differs from one country to another, and the specific issues facing developing and post-conflict areas.
 
International - Parliament's Role in Defence Procurement [English][Arabic][French]. 2007
This Backgrounder was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). UNDP funded its translation and publication in Arabic. It sheds light on the difference of defense procurement from other types of government procurements, the actors involved in defense procurement, and the stages of defense procurement in which the parliament may intervene. The backgrounder also discusses the main challenges facing this type of procurement, ways to strengthen parliamentary role in this area, and the specific issues facing developing and post-conflict areas.
 
International - Parliaments, Crisis Prevention and Recovery: Guidelines for the International Community [English][French]. 2006
 
International - Parliaments, Politics and HIV/AIDS: A Comparative Study of Five African Countries [English]. 2006
This is a synthesis report from a comparative study in Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa on the effective use of parliamentary oversight in respect of the national responses to HIV/AIDS. It provides lessons learned and detailed analysis on the impact of parliamentary oversight of HIV/AIDS as well as key recommendations to strengthen the role of parliamentarians in the fight against HIV/AIDS.
 
International - Participation of Women in Political Life [English][French]. 2000
Subtitled "An assessment of developments in national parliaments, political parties, government and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, five years after the Fourth World Conference on Women", the study published by IPU analyzes answers received from parliaments and political parties to the surveys undertaken since October 1998 on follow-up to Beijing.
 
International - Party Finance and Corruption [English].
A comparative and cross-boundary study on securing party finances and the corruption that process may lead to. The study considers cases from a range of countries including Britian, United States, Russia, Germany, Italy, and South East Asia. It explains under which circumstances corruption may arise in the process of securing party finances.
 
International - Performances of Resistance: Women's Struggle for Political Power in Cambodia [English]. 2006
Paper published by UN-INSTRAW exploring strategies employed by Cambodian women to resist male domination within the political sphere. It investigates ways of eliminating gender hierarchies and altering gender stereotypes and roles. To that end, it addresses two main processes which are networking and mobilization, and the formation on new identities by Cambodian women.
 
International - Political Parties and Democracy in Theoretical and Practical Perspectives: Developments in Party Communications [English]. 2005
The paper published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI) considers possible approaches to create more effective and inclusive political parties. It focuses on communication channels that parties may use to strengthen relationships with citizens and promote fair elections. It also describes communication channels that can be adopted by governments to promote fair and free elections.
 
International - Political Parties in Asia: Promoting Reform And Combating Corruption In Eight Countries [English]. 2004
The report, published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI) and the Council for Asian Liberals and Democrats (CALD), presents research findings on strategies to combact corruption and mechanisms put in place by Asian political parties to limit opportunities for corruption. It focuses on Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand.
 
International - Political Parties: When do They Work for Women? [English]. 2005
Paper published by the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (UN-DAW).The paper analyses the interaction of gender issues with political parties and the relationship between the two in order to assess under which circumstances political parties incorporate gender demands, and the tendency of political parties to be more or less committed to the advancement of gender policies. The paper focuses on the countries of Latin America but may also be applied beyond the continent and to a broader context.
 
International - Politics: Women's Insight [English]. 2000
This Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) study analyzes the political experience of some 200 women from all over the world. It highlights women's specific contribution to the political process and the changes to which their presence on the political scene has led to in the prevailing political culture and environment, as well as in parties, parliaments and governments. It reports on their successes, their difficulties and their expectations. Statistics and records of personal experience enliven the text and sharpen its focus.
 
International - Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers in Africa: Parliaments and Economic Policy Performance [English]. 2005
The report, prepared by the Parliamentary Centre, highlights very critical issues that are central to the success of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) implementation and focuses on the role that Parliaments and civil society groups can play in ensuring greater accountability in PRSP implementation. This review was conducted in four PRSP countries (Ghana, Niger, Tanzania and Malawi) in order to examine the strengths as well as weaknesses so far in the implementation of national PRSPs, and to identify the possible roles that parliaments can play to improve PRSP performance.
 
International - Preparing for Success: Tools, Methods and Strategies for Electoral Campaigns [English]. 2003
Training manual published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI) offering guidelines for the planning of campaign building workshops intended for women candidates. It provides a description of aspects to be articulated in such workshops ranging from initial preparations and research, building a campaign team, to working with the media.
 
International - Presiding Officers: Speakers and Presidents of Legislatures [English]. 1996
This study, published by National Democratic Institute (NDI), sheds light on the general models of the presiding authority of legislature bodies. The study suggests three main models: the Westminster model, the U.S. Congress model, and the French Bureau model.
 
International - Prime Movers, Specific Features and Challenges of Security Sector Reform in a “Guardian State”: The Case of Turkey [English]. 2007
This paper, published by DCAF, aims to address the nature of security sector reform (SSR) in Turkey, the problems and challenges therein, and the impact of reform on the system.
 
International - Private Military Companies [English][Arabic]. 2006
This Backgrounder was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). UNDP funded its translation and publication in Arabic. It discusses private military companies in the light of the growing demand on them, and compares and contrasts them with military institutions in terms of cost effectiveness and efficiency. It also sheds light on the importance of these companies to governance issues, and how they should be regulated both by international and national legislation.
 
International - Promoting Gender Equality in New Aid Modalities and Partnerships [English]. 2006
The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness calls for donors to increase aid and to adopt concrete actions that can be monitored while aid delivery and management is reformed. This discussion paper identifies an initial set of considerations to ensure that gender equality is central to the aid effectiveness agenda. It highlights gender responsive budgets as one of the important tools in this realm. It is intended for policy-makers currently adjusting to the new aid modalities.
 
International - Promoting Gender Sensitivity in Local Governance in Ghana [English]. 2006
An article published by Routledge providing an overview of the increase in the number of women candidates standing for elections in Ghana as a result of certain government policies and campaign building skills programmes. It reveals how the efforts of government institutions, development organizations, and local NGOs have resulted in the increase of women standing as candidates between 1998 and 2002. It also exhibits how allocating a 30% quota for women in district assemblies constituted a crucial factor in enhancing women's representation.
 
International - Promoting Partnership between Men and Women in Parliament: The Experience of the Inter-Parliamentary Union [English]. 2005
Case study presented by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) related to the promotion of the participation of women in parliament which is divided into three sections. The first section consists in a brief analysis of progress or setbacks women parliamentarians have experienced over the past 10 years. The second section examines best practices established by the IPU for parliaments to facilitate the participation of women. The third and final section reflects on a number of capacity building efforts in national parliaments.
 
International - Promoting Women's Political Participation: Women Representatives Training (WRT) Program Trainer's Manual [English]. 1997
Training manual including a detailed description of a training session for women leaders in Nepal. The manual was published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI) and covers topics relating to women's empowerment and their advancement within political parties, in addition to community needs identification and the functions of local government.
 
International - Public Participation in The Legislation Process [English]. 2000
This document presents the summary of results from a nation-wide regional Survey and a national conference conducted by the National Council of Namibia and National Democratic Institute for International Affairs in 2000. The survey aimed to poll the people on Mechanisms topics concerning Namibia’s Legislative Process, communication between Parliament and the regions, enhancing communication between the regions and the public and enhancing information flow between Parliament, the regions and the public.
 
International - Putting Gender Back on the Policy Agenda: Gender Equality and Political Participation in the Russian Federation [English]. 2007
Article published in Russian Profile (Magazine and Website) discussing the implications of unequal political representation and participation of women in the Russian Federation and the challenges they face within that context in post-soviet Russia. It also explains the necessity of articulating gender issues in the Russian policy agenda to achieve genuine democracy.
 
International - Reconciliation after Violent Conflict: A Handbook [English][French]. 2003
The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) Handbook on Reconciliation after Violent Conflict presents a range of tools that can be, and have been, employed in the design and implementation of reconciliation processes. Most of them draw on the experience of people grappling with the problems of past violence and injustice. There is no ‘right answer’ to the challenge of reconciliation, and so the Handbook prescribes no single approach. Instead, it presents the options and methods, with their strengths and weaknesses evaluated, so that practitioners and policy-makers can adopt or adapt them, as best suits each specific context. It examines the context of reconciliation, the people involved, the instruments used, and the possible role that international community can play.
 
International - Report of the Second World Conference of Speakers of Parliaments [English][French]. 2005
This IPU publication is the report of the Second World Conference of Speakers of Parliaments that took place in New York at the United Nations Headquarters in September 2005. The participants discussed methods to help to bridge the democracy gap in international relations. The main topics discussed were: reform of the United Nations; terrorism and human rights; development; parliamentary involvement in international affairs; parliament and democracy in the 21st century; parliaments and the United nations; responsibilities of parliaments in international affairs; and parliaments contribution to democracy.
 
International - Re-tooling for New Challenges: Parliaments as Peace-builders [English]. 2005
Published by the Parliamentary Centre.
 
International - Roundtable Discussion On Analyzing Legislation With A Gender Perspective [English]. 2007
A training manual published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI) focusing on four main components: gender in lawmaking, gender in committees, gender oversight, and gender and representation. It sheds light on legislation and oversight of gender-sensitive laws. It highlights how a gender perspective would ultimately enable women to play a greater role in decision making in parliament.
 
International - Security Governance in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding [English]. 2005
This volume, published by DCAF, examines a number of key issues related to peacebuilding from a security governance perspective. It highlights security sector reform (SSR), disarmament demobilization and reintegration (DDR), and the rule of law and transitional justice.
 
International - Security Sector Governance in Africa: A Handbook [English].
This Handbook discusses security sector governance in Africa, through examining the scope, processes, actors and contexts of security sector reform in Africa, drawing on both good and bad practices, providing realistic entry-points for broadening the security agenda and at the same time suggesting ways of ensuring the professionalization of security forces in defence of the states and protection of the citizens.
 
International - Security Sector Reform and Democracy in Transitional Societies [English]. 2002
The DCAF paper discusses several issues related to democratic control of armed forces, such as: the of civil-military relations and security sector reform; parliamentary oversight of the armed forces; It examines the particular challenges faced by Central and Eastern European Countries in efforts to establish democratic control of armed forces. Finally, the book closes with individuals asked to asses how successful were past efforts to facilitate democratic control and security sector reforms.
 
International - Security Sector Reform and Gender (Tool 1) [English]. 2008
This tool, prepared by DCAF, is designed to provide a basic introduction to Security Sector Reform (SSR) and gender issues, it includes also the rationale for why integrating gender issues strengthens SSR processes, practical ways of integrating gender into SSR policy and programme cycles and an overview of specific gender and SSR issues in post conflict, transitional, developing and developed country contexts.
 
International - Security Sector Reform in South Eastern Europe: An Inventory of Initiatives [English].
The project "Security Sector Reform in South Eastern Europe: An Inventory of Initiatives" is a research project carried out by The Centre for International and Security Studies at York University. The main objective of this project is to encourage transparency and information-sharing in security sector reform, by providing an inventory of ongoing initiatives and identifying gaps and overlaps in international engagement in the region.
 
International - Seethings and Seatings: Strategies for Women’s Political Participation in Asia Pacific [English]. 2005
Book published by Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law, and Development. It aims at assisting women in the Asia Pacific region to challenge existing structures, especially social structures, hindering their participation in the political process. The book presents six case studies on women leaders from the region.
 
International - States of Emergency [English][Arabic]. 2006
This Backgrounder was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). UNDP funded its translation into Arabic and publication. It discusses the key components of a state of emergency, and the importance of this issue. It outlines the essential principles that should be respected during the state of emergency, focusing on the human rights aspect. It also details the special powers that can be proclaimed in such a state and the mechanisms and approaches that can limit the abuse of these powers.
 
International - Strengthening Democracy Through Women's Political Participation [English]. 2000
Seminar organized and published by The Asia Foundation which took place after the economic crisis in numerous Asian countries in the late 1990s. The objective of the seminar was to formulate strategies for democratic development, economic progress, and stable international relations in the Asia Pacific. The cornerstones it focuses on to achieve such results include human rights and legal reform, the participation of women in politics and other sectors, governance reforms, and security issues.
 
International - Strengthening Governance: The Role of Women in Rwanda's Transition, A Summary [English]. 2004
Report published by the United Nations Office of the Special Advisor on Gender Issues and the Advancement of Women (OSAGI). It examines and illustrates how women came to play a crucial role in governance and reconciliation in post-genocide Rwanda, and occupy 49% of seats in parliament. It sheds light on the change in women's self perception and their contributions towards gender progressive policies within the administration, in additions to challenges they face.
 
International - Strengthening Internal Political Party Democracy: Candidate Recruitment from a Gender Perspective [English]. 2008
Paper published by the Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA). The paper is based on the premise that political parties can not claim to be democratic unless they are inclusive of all sectors of society they represent whereas the reality is that parliaments remain male dominated. In this regard the paper discusses the candidate selection process within political parties and highlights particular obstacles women face.
 
International - Strengthening Legislative Capacity in Legislative - Execituve Rlations [English][Arabic]. 2000
This National Democratic Institute (NDI) paper outlines the foundations of legislative- executive relations in parliamentary and presidential systems. The paper also highlights some of the tools and mechanisms that are used by legislatures in both established and emerging democracies to assert their legitimate rights and exercise their prerogatives in the policymaking and oversight spheres.
 
International - The Arab Quota Report: Selected Case Studies [English]. 2007
International IDEA has convened a series of regional workshops to examine the Asian, Latin American, African, and European experiences with quotas. The fifth and final workshop was held in Cairo, Egypt, in 2004, and reviewed the experiences of quotas in the Arab world. The workshop was organized and held jointly with United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Cairo, United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) Arab States, and the National Council for Women in Egypt. This publication is a selection of the case studies presented at the Arab region workshop. They include comparative experiences with quotas, address the cultural challenges to women’s representation in the Arab world, and point to the opportunities that could be seized in order to meet those challenges.
 
International - The Cost of Non Europe in the Area of Security and Defence [English]. 2006
This study, published by the European Parliament, sheds light on the trends in European defence spending and compares it with that of the United States. It discusses the efforts made towards a European Defence Equipment Market and offers several recommendations.
 
International - The Enhancement of Women’s Participation in Electoral Processes in Post-Conflict Countries: The Case of Rwanda [English]. 2004
Paper published by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), the United Nations, and the permanent mission of Norway. It analyzes the progress achieved after Rwanda adopted a new constitution, while also describing Rwanda's political commitment to aspects such as enhancing women participation, the role of women organizations in that regard, in addition to challenges woman face in the electoral process.
 
International - The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences [English]. 2004
This IDEA report examines women’s political representation on the African continent, and shows how quotas have contributed to increasing women’s access to political power. It illustrates the different quota types that are being implemented in different political contexts. The report includes 17 regional and country case studies.
 
International - The Implementation of Quotas: Asian Experiences [English]. 2003
This IDEA report is the first in a series of reports on regional experiences with quota implementation. It addresses key issues such as the type of quotas in use in some parts of Asia (including legislated and political party quotas); when, where and how quotas have worked; the challenges of implementation and enforcement; and the consequences of the use of quotas. It provides information about the use of gender quotas as an instrument to increase women’s political representation in Asia, and to show that they can and are being applied successfully.
 
International - The Implementation of Quotas: European Experiences [English]. 2005
This IDEA report examines women’s political representation in Europe, through studying the effect off applying quota systems. There are 11 country case studies included in the report: Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Serbia and Montenegro and Slovenia.
 
International - The Implementation of Quotas: Latin American Experiences. [English]. 2003
This IDEA report, part of the series of reports on regional experiences with quota implementation, examines quotas used in Latin America, with case studies from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Mexico and Peru.
 
International - The New Parliamentary Peacebuilding Paradigm in Africa [English]. 2005
Study published by the Association of European Parliamentarians for Africa.
 
International - The Participation of Women and Men in Decision-Making: The Parliamentary Dimension [English]. 2005
This paper has been prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting (EGM) entitled the “Equal participation of women and men in decision-making processes, with particular emphasis on political participation and leadership”. It focuses on the quantitative aspect of women’s participation in parliaments, primarily in the past ten years. It provides an overview of the gains relating to women’s access to parliaments and executive bodies, and highlights some of the factors that influence women’s access to decision-making positions
 
International - The Participation of Women in South Africa's First Democratic Election [English]. 1999
Paper published by the Electoral Institute of South Africa (EISA) providing an overview on the participation of women in South Africa's first democratic elections in 1994. It deals with aspects such as the intimidation of women voters, role of voter education, attitudes of various political parties towards women, and election results in terms of women's representation in parliament. The paper concludes with a series of useful recommendations for the inclusion of women's needs into the electoral process.
 
International - The Public's Right to Know: Principles related to the Laws on the Freedom of Knowledge [Arabic]. 2006
This manual tackles various legal, constitutional and political aspects of the freedom of information and of the right to know and presents some of the sectors which directly benefit from the adoption of a law in this respect, such as the environment and the media. "No Corruption" includes in the manual a document containing the general principles of the right to know, as well as a model law on the access to information translated by the Association from "Article 19- The International Center Against Censorship".
 
International - The Quick Count and Election Observation: An NDI Handbook for Civic Organizations and Political Parties [English]. 2002
Handbook published by the National Democratic Institute providing an overview of how quick counts in elections are conducted throughout the world. It also provides a step-by-step explanation of methods to organize and plan election observations.
 
International - The Role and Practice of Legislative Hearings in Democracies: Examples from Germany and the United States [English]. 2001
The paper, Published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI), is based on seminars that took place in China on legislative public hearings to provide Chinese participants with first-hand accounts on the context and functioning of such hearings in the United States and Germany.
 
International - The Role of Female Parliamentarians in Strenghtening Democratic Institutions [English]. 2007
Article published by Africa in Democracy and Good Governance (magazine) which tackles the issue of strengthening democracy through parliaments as they constitute one of the three main democratic institutions, the other two being the executive and judiciary. The main emphasis is on the participation of women in parliaments and the democratization process. The article highlights the way forward in terms of women parliamentarians forming networks within each country and between parliaments.
 
International - The Role of Parliament in the National Reconciliation Process in Africa [English][French]. 2007
A handbook published by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA). The handbook was followed by a seminar and focuses on the role to be played by parliaments in post-conflict societies during the transitional period and reconciliation process. The handbook and seminar describe lessons from past cases and point out pitfalls to be avoided during the process.
 
International - This Gun is our Food: Demilitarizing the White Army Militias of South Sudan [English]. 2007
This paper, published by the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, highlights the policy considerations for the demilitarization of militias based on the lessons learned from South Sudan’s recent experiences disarming White Army militias in Upper Nile and Jonglei states from January to August 2006.
 
International - Tips for Meeting with Your Elected Representative [English].
A list of tips published by Women's Edge on required preparations prior, during, and after a meeting with an elected representative.
 
International - Toward the Development of International Standards for Democratic Legislatures: A Discussion Document for Review by Interested Legislatures, Donors and International Organizations [English]. 2007
Prepared by the National Democratic Institute (NDI), this document is intended as a basis for discussion within the international community regarding standards for the functioning of democratic legislatures. It highlights key topics such as election and the status of the legislators, organization of the legislature, and the functions and values of the legislature.
 
International - Towards a New Relationship: The Role of the Military in a Democratic Government [English]. 1990
This report, published by NDI, focuses on the experience of Argentina during the six year democratic experiment. It provides a critical insight to the efforts made to develop the civil-military relations, and recommends what needs to be done, in the parliament, Ministry of defense, and military headquarters.
 
International - Training Manual for Gender Sensitive Budgeting [English]. 2004
The manual, published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), is designed for trainers and workshops facilitators on gender-responsive budgeting (GRB) and includes materials such as presentations and background information to be used during workshops.
 
International - Transparency in Defence Policy, Military Budgeting and Procurement [English]. 2002
 
International - Transparent Government: Developing Public Access to Government Information [English][Arabic]. 2005
This study, published by the International National Democratic Institute, sheds light on the freedom of information laws. It discusses the advantages of the freedom of information and the parties benefiting from them and focuses on the means to develop and implement freedom of information laws. The study also publishes a list of the national laws on the freedom of information in force in the Arab countries.
 
International - United Nations Fund for Women UNIFEM [English].
Website of the United Nations Fund for Women (UNIFEM) on Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB). The website was launched in 2001 and strives to support efforts of governments, women's organizations, members of parliament and academics to ensure that planning and budgeting effectively respond to gender equality goals. Includes a section on country GRB initiatives supported by UNIFEM's programmes in Africa, Arab States, Europe and the CIS, and Latin America and the Caribbean.
 
International - United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women [English].
INSTRAW is a UN institute which works towards the advancement of women and gender equality worldwide through research and training programmes. The website provides a wide range of resources and information for researchers, activists, policy-makers, and practitioners on the issue of women in politics.
 
International - Urban Governance - Why Gender Matters (Gender Development Monograph Series) [English]. 1996
Paper published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) exploring gender issues as they relate to the areas of urban governance and government responsibility. The paper mainly advocates the promotion of gender awareness and competence among both men and women in the political sphere.
 
International - USAID's Experience Strengthening Legislatures [English]. 2001
A Brief history of the USAID's Legislative Strengthening Program, June 2001 Center for Democracy and Governance, Bureau for Global Programs, Field Support, and Research.
 
International - Vetting and the Security Sector [English][Arabic][French]. 2007
This Backgrounder was prepared by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). UNDP funded its translation and publication in Arabic. This backgrounder sheds light on the vetting and security sector. It discusses the importance of vetting, who needs to be vetted, some of the main techniques of vetting. It also sheds light on the human rights and governance challenges that vetting poses, and some of the particular challenges for transition and post conflict countries.
 
International - Volunteerism and Legislation: A Guidance Note [English][French]. 2004
The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), the United Nations Volunteers (UNV) and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) jointly produced this Guidance Note. The Guidance Note results from a survey carried out among a selection of parliaments, governments and Red Cross National Societies. It is a practical tool aimed at assisting parliaments and other actors in developing an enabling legal environment for volunteerism.
 
International - Win With Women - Strengthen Political Parties: Global Action Plan [English]. 2005
A report published by National Democratic Institute (NDI) discussing the Global Action Plan developed by the Win with Women initiative. Includes recommendations on increasing the participation of women in politics on the parliamentary, provincial, local, and political party level, in addition to advocating for legislation that embeds full equality for women and men.
 
International - Women & Elections: Guide to Promoting the Participation of Women in Elections [English]. 2005
This handbook, published by the United Nations Department of Public Information, is intended to provide a quick reference guide to assist different actors working to promote greater participation of women in electoral processes in post conflict countries. Some of the topics discussed are the political participation, voter registration, voter and civil education, election administration and observation.
 
International - Women at the Peace Table: Making a Difference [English]. 2000
This book tells many inspiring stories of women who have actively negotiated peace amidst their countries' conflicts. "Women at the Peace Table" describes the obstacles faced by women who wanted to get involved in peace negotiations and the strategies they adopted to make a positive impact on peace negotiations.
 
International - Women in Government Source Kit [English].
Resource Kit published by the United Nations Development Programme and Asian-Pacific Gender Equality Network-APGEN providing tools for increasing knowledge on issues surrounding the campaign for gender balance in government and politics in general.The resource kit includes strategies to attain gender balance on issues concerning quota systems, campaign finance reform, proportional representation, and political leadership training and support services.
 
International - Women in Parliament in 2005: The Year in Perspective [English][French]. 2006
The annual brochure provides an overview and analysis of progress made and setbacks encountered by women in parliament further to elections and renewals held over a year. Produced by IPU, it presents data on women in national parliaments, regional and world trends, information on women presiding officers and women candidates. It also analyses mechanisms aimed at supporting women's access to parliament.
 
International - Women in Parliament in 2007: The Year in Perspective [English]. 2008
This IPU report highlights the situation of women in parliaments during the year 2007. It summarizes the level of women representation in both upper and lower houses of parliaments across the world.
 
International - Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [English][French]. 1998
Written by parliamentarians and researchers, this IDEA publication examines the obstacles women face in getting into parliament, how to overcome such barriers and ways in which they can make a greater impact once they enter parliament. It examines topics such as quotas and electoral systems and includes case studies from Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Jordan, Lebanon, Norway, Russia and South Africa.
 
International - Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. A Revised Edition. [English]. 2005
This new and updated edition of Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers Handbook, published by IDEA, covers the ground of women’s access to the legislature in three steps: It looks into the obstacles women confront when entering Parliament – be they political, socio-economic or ideological and psychological. It presents solutions to overcome these obstacles, such as changing electoral systems and introducing quotas, and it details strategies for women to influence politics once they are elected to parliament, an institution which is traditionally male dominated.
 
International - Women in Parliaments: Beyond Numbers [English][French]. 2002
The handbook -with updated sections in 2002- focuses on the problems women face in getting into parliament and the mechanisms they have used to overcome these obstacles. The handbook provides also strategies and ideas of how women MP can have an impact on the political process and uses case studies from a wide range of countries, with cases from Egypt, Lebanon and Jordan.
 
International - Women in Politics: 1945 - 2005 (Information Kit) [English][French]. 2005
This information kit, published by IPU, is composed of six data sheets on women's participation in politics over the past 60 years: historical table on the institutional and legal evolution of states and the presence of women in national parliaments; progress and setbacks of women in national parliaments between 1995 and 2005; women in the two parliamentary regional assemblies elected by direct suffrage: The Central American Parliament and the European Parliament; a chronology of women heads of state or government: 1945 -2005; an overview of women in the executive and legislative branches; ten years in review: trends of women in parliament worldwide.
 
International - Women in Politics: 60 Years in Retrospect (Information Kit) [English][French]. 2006
This information kit, Published by IPU, is composed of six data sheets on women's participation in politics over the past 60 years: Historical table on the institutional and legal evolution of States and the presence of women in national parliaments; Progress and Setbacks of Women in National Parliaments between 1995 and 2006; Women in the two parliamentary regional assemblies elected by direct suffrage: The Central American Parliament and the European Parliament; A Chronology of Women Heads of State or Government: 1945 - 2006; An Overview of Women in Parliament: 1945-2006; The Participation of Women and Men in Decision-Making: The parliamentary dimension.
 
International - Women in Power and Decision-Making in the Caribbean [English]. 2003
Report published by the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) examining actions and strategies taken to advance women's participation in power and decision making within parliament structures in seven states in the Caribbean region. Attention is given to the challenges and limitations encountered in efforts to move this issue forward. An overview of institutional changes that have taken place in the region is also provided.
 
International - Women Watch [English].
Website of Women's Watch provided by the United Nations Inter-Agency Network on Women and Gender Equality (IANWGE). Women's watch is a central gateway providing information and resources on gender equality and the empowerment of women throughout the world. Covers numerous aspects of women's issues including gender mainstreaming and women in power and decision making.
 
International - Women’s Efforts vs. Politicians’ Power [English]. 2008
Article published by MONFEMNET on efforts to introduce a 30% quota for women in Mongolia and Mongolian women's struggles towards adopting the required legislation in that regard. The article provides a space to women's voice expressing their own analysis of parliamentary actions and to propose future steps concerning women rights.
 
International - Women’s Rights in Theory and Practice: Employment, Violence and Poverty [English]. 2002
Report published by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars providing a description on the current status of gender equality laws across the United States and lessons learned in the last three decades of the previous century concerning these laws.
 
International - Women's Human Rights Resources [English].
The web site provides information- fact sheets, cases and court decisions, publications and research guides on international women's human rights. The web site provides access to the Diana international human rights database that is maintained and updated by the Women's Human Rights Resources Group, University of Toronto- Faculty of Law.
 
International - Women's Involvement in Local Leadership [English]. 2006
This report highlights the findings of the Women's Involvement in Local Leadership (WILL) research program examining how elements of program design and implementation contribute to the cultivation of women's leadership and enhance the democratic process in conflict-affected communities in Iraq, Colombia and Serbia. It discusses educational and economic independence, programs to promote women’s leadership, traditional family and social structures, value of women’s contributions, and perception of democracy and politics in the context of the three countries.
 
UN Agencies - CEDAW and Security Council Resolution 1325: A Quick Guide [English]. 2006
This guide provides a basic introduction to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and Security Council resolution 1325 on women, peace and security, and reviews their commonalities, synergies, and potential strategic uses, particularly in the context of conflict and post-conflict reconstruction.
 
UN Agencies - Child Protection: A Handbook for Parliamentarians [English]. 2004
This Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)/ United Nations' Children Fund (UNICEF) co-publication, launched at the IPU's 110th International Assembly in April 2004, serves as a catalyst for action, providing examples of parliamentarians' responses to the challenges of child protection and addressing 10 specific protection issues.
 
UN Agencies - Engaging Parliaments in The Millenium Development Goals: a Key Part of National MDG Strategies [English]. 2006
This study, published by UNDP, presents input made by several UNDP specialists around the world, who shared their experiences and information about how UNDP has supported parliaments in several countries in engaging in the promotion and achievement of Millennium Development Goals. The main topics discussed are: the role of parliamentarians in rich and developing countries in meeting the MDGs; legislatures in pursuit of the MDGs: a key part of national MDG strategies; best practices for European Union parliamentarians to meet the MDGs; references on parliamentary work on MDGs.
 
UN Agencies - Enhancing Women's Participation in Electoral Processes in Post-Conflict Countries [English]. 2004
The Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women (OSAGI) convened an expert group meeting on "Enhancing women’s participation in electoral processes in post-conflict countries,” jointly organized with the Department of Political Affairs of the United Nations. The group discussed and analyzed electoral processes in post-conflict countries and the obstacles, lessons learned and good practices in enhancing women’s participation in these processes. This report is the outcome of that meeting.
 
UN Agencies - Fact Sheet on Women and Decision-Making [English]. 1996
Fact Sheet on Women in Government as at January 1996. The UN Division for the Advancement of Women has created a statistical database on women in the executive branch of governments. Data for 187 countries was extracted form information published in the 1996 Edition of the Worldwide Government Directory (Worldwide Government Directories, Inc.).
 
UN Agencies - Governing Systems and Executive-Legislative Relations (Presidential, Parliamentary and Hybrid Systems) [English]. 2000
A UNDP-MAGNET technical series publication. The report examines three aspects of executive-legislative relations, the separation of powers, the removal from office and the structure of legislative parties and leadership.
 
UN Agencies - Guidelines on the Rights and Duties of the Opposition in Parliament [English]. 1999
The representatives of African Parliaments meeting in Libreville from 17 to 19 May 1999 on the occasion of the Parliamentary Seminar on Relations Between Majority and Minority Parties in African Parliaments adopted these guidelines for the rights and duties of the opposition in parliament. The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) in co-operation with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) organized the seminar at the invitation of the Parliament of Gabon.
 
UN Agencies - How to Conduct a Legislative Needs Assessment [English]. 2000
A UNDP-MAGNET technical series publication. The report discusses the legislative needs assessment, what should it do for decision-makers? When should UNDP respond to a request for assistance? From whom should requests for assistance come? What should an assessment review? How well does the legislature perform its lawmaking and oversight functions? And who should conduct the assessment? Sample Terms of Reference for Legislative Needs Assessment
 
UN Agencies - How UNDP Supports Parliaments [English]. 2002
A review of the United Nations Development Programme's legislative strengthening programmes.
 
UN Agencies - Initiative on Strengthening the Role of Parliaments in Crisis Prevention and Recovery [English].
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), in partnership with the Inter-Parliamentary Union, instigated this initiative in an effort to call international attention to the important contribution parliaments can make and the urgent need for enhanced support for parliamentary development as a key component of crisis prevention and peace building.
 
UN Agencies - Internal Organization of the Legislative Branch [English]. 2000
A UNDP-MAGNET technical series publication. The report analyzes how legislatures are organized internally in order to expedite the execution of legislature functions of lawmaking, representation and oversight.
 
UN Agencies - Lawmaking and Stages of Legislative Procedure [English]. 2000
A UNDP-MAGNET technical series publication. The report examines the lawmaking function of the legislature and the related processes of introducing, considering and enacting laws.
 
UN Agencies - Legislative Chambers: Unicameral or Bicameral? [English]. 2000
A UNDP-MAGNET technical series publication. The report examines the question of how many chambers a parliament should have, a unicameral or bicameral system and the perception underlying each view.
 
UN Agencies - Legislative Committee System [English]. 2000
A UNDP-MAGNET technical series publication. The report examines the committee systems and their role in shaping legislative outcomes.
 
UN Agencies - Legislature and Constituency Relations [English]. 2000
A UNDP-MAGNET technical series publication. The report discusses the importance of legislative constituency relations, the key issues and challenges faced by legislatures in developing countries with regard to the legislative-constituency relations and the activities and structures to enhance these relations, such as reforming the electoral systems, opening the legislature to the public, public hearings, strengthening civil society groups, civic education, etc.
 
UN Agencies - Parliamentary Development: Gender Perspective [English]. 2007
This report, published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), argues that women in parliament can have a positive impact on the political process and strongly advocates for gender equality in parliament. It also includes a brief case study of women legislators in Rwanda.
 
UN Agencies - Political Parties in the Legislature [English]. 2000
A UNDP-MAGNET technical series publication. The report examines the party systems, party functions and the internal organization of parties in a legislature.
 
UN Agencies - Primers in Gender and Democratic Governance #1 [English][Arabic][French]. 2007
This paper explores some of most common questions on gender, recalls basic obligations for UNDP staff, and develops a human rights-based approach to practical tools for democratic governance practitioners in terms of gender programming per cluster.
 
UN Agencies - Refugee Protection: A Guide to International Refugee Law [English]. 2001
This handbook aims to inform parliamentarians about the founding principles and challenges of international refugee law and also to mobilize them, as policy makers, in the implementation of the law for securing adequate protection of refugees.
 
UN Agencies - Report of the Second Tri-Partite Meeting on Follow-Up of the World Summit for Social Development [English]. 1999
A summary of the discussion that took place at the second Tri-Partite Meeting of Representatives of Parliaments, Governments and International Governmental Organizations.
 
UN Agencies - Women's Political Participation and Good Governance: 21st Century Challenges [English]. 2000
The present report focuses on a number of issues including progress made in women’s political participation since Beijing, the Indian experiment with constitutional amendments mandating the reservation of one third of local government-elected representation to women, and the wider connection between gender, poverty and governance.
 
Regional Non Arab - 1995-2003: Have Women Progressed? Latin American Index of Fulfilled Commitment [English]. 2005
The report, published by the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and the Latin American Faculty for Social Sciences - Chile (FLASCO), summarizes the Latin American Index for Fulfilled Commitments (IFC) and includes measurements of the index from 1995 to 2003 in 18 countries in the region. The information presented in the index reveals progress and setbacks regarding gender equality in the region.
 
Regional Non Arab - 30 Years of Democracy: Riding the Wave? Women’s Political Participation in Latin America [English]. 2008
Publication by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) examining the progress in women's participation at all levels in Latin America in the past three decades by drawing on data from 18 countries. It provides recommendations for improving participation such as electoral reforms and incorporating gender criteria into regulations on political party financing.
 
Regional Non Arab - Conditions determining the level of representation of women: The experience of quota system in Latin America [English]. 2005
Report published by the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (UN-DAW) exploring the impact of introducing gender quotas in Latin America. It examines three periods, between the 1970s and 1980s, around 1995, and in 2004. It shows that women in Latin America enjoyed relatively high representation in parliament independent of quotas, however, it shows that quotas did lead to in increase despite it being small.
 
Regional Non Arab - Party Finance Reform in Africa, Lessons Learned from Four Countries: Ghana, Kenya, Senegal & South Africa [English]. 2005
Report published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI) on awareness raising efforts on transparent and accountable party financing based on the second component of the African Political Party Finance Initiative. It considers the cases of Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, and South Africa.
 
Regional Non Arab - Political Parties in Asia: Promoting Reform And Combating Corruption In Eight Countries [English]. 2004
The report, published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI) and the Council for Asian Liberals and Democrats (CALD), presents research findings on strategies to combat corruption and mechanisms put in place by Asian political parties to limit opportunities for corruption. It focuses on Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand.
 
Regional Non Arab - The Women's Legal Rights Initiative: Final Report [English]. 2007
Publication published by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). It focuses on legislation to protect women's legal rights and enhancing the justice sector's capacity to enforce women's legal rights. The publication focuses on several countries mainly from Sub-Saharan Africa.
 
Regional Non Arab - Women Politicians: A Global Force for Peace [English]. 2000
Recommendations and highlights from the women parliamentary conference published by the Center for Asia-Pacific Women in Politics. It provides guidelines for women parliamentarians to construct peaceful societies and for the removal of major causes of potential conflicts. It highlights a human security approach whereby security concerns are shifted from that of states to security of people.
 
Regional Non Arab - Women, Political Parties and Electoral Systems in Latin America [English].
Case study published by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) focusing on Latin America. It reveals women's share in power, public attitude to women leaders, political opportunities open to women based on their involvement in structured or unstructured political parties. It also explores extent of women's representation based on electoral systems, presidential or multi-party systems, in addition to gender quotas.
 
National Non Arab - A Gender Responsive Parliament: A Handbook on Gender Mainstreaming in the Legislature [English]. 2008
A handbook published by the United Nations Development Programme and the Secretariat General of the Indonesian House of Parliament that provides brief and simple references to gender mainstreaming in legislation processes. The handbook also sheds light on women's political participation in a certain number of countries.
 
National Non Arab - Constituency Handbook: For Members of Parliament [English]. 1996
The handbook is intended for parliamentarians in Malawi to assist them in working more effectively with their constituents. It includes methods for constituency outreach and contact information of individuals and organizations in Malawi.
 
National Non Arab - Does Size Matter? Critical Mass and Women MPs in the New-Zealand House of Representatives [English]. 2001
Paper published by the Australian National University focusing on the claim that women will impact politics only when they achieve critical mass in legislative bodies. It highlights the number of complexities that are ignored in critical mass literature by using the case of the New Zealand House of Representatives (parliament).
 
National Non Arab - Gender, Women and Electoral Politics in Zimbabwe [English]. 2004
Research report published by the Electoral Institute of South Africa (EISA) providing insights into electoral laws and regulations regulating parliamentary and presidential elections in Zimbabwe. The research report also delineates to problems faced by women candidates in terms of funding, hostility from men, and quotas.
 
National Non Arab - National Seminar on The Process of Engendering a New Constitution for Rwanda [English][French]. 2002
Report on a seminar, organized by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), within the framework of the elaboration of a new gender-sensitive constitution for Rwanda. Participants included Rwandan MPs, women associations, Rwandan delegations from the President's office, government, and the supreme court, in addition to parliamentary delegations from other African countries The report is in English and French.
 
National Non Arab - Nigeria: Political Transition and the Complexities of Gender Empowerment [English]. 2005
Paper published by United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (UN-DAW) on the transition from the marginalization of gender concerns in the political sphere to the integration of women into constitutional politics in Nigeria. It shows how women's representation is steadily, albeit modestly, growing due to overcoming patriarchal structures that restricted the involvement of women in politics.
 
National Non Arab - Political Party Quotas in the Croatian Social Democratic Party [English]. 2004
A paper published by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA). It examines gender quotas and the participation of women in Croatia after the collapse of the Berlin wall in 1989. It mainly examines how the quota system was adopted by the Croatian Social Democratic Party in a transitional period from a state-run economy to a free-market economy.
 
National Non Arab - Republic of Macedonia Code of Conduct Of Political Parties For Free and Fair Parliamentary Elections [English]. 2003
Code of Conduct agreed on by Macedonian political parties and published by the National Democratic Institute (NDI). The Code outlines the rules and standards ensuring free and fair parliamentary elections.
 
National Non Arab - Strengthening Women's Political Participation in Indonesia [English]. 2002
Report published by International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) on debates and discussions that resulted from IDEA's gender activities in Indonesia in 2002. The discussions and debates revolved around women's political participation and representation, in addition to adopting of 30% quota for women by political parties.
 
National Non Arab - Women and Politics in Indonesia: A General Overview of Strengthening Women's Political Participation [English].
Article published by the international Republican Institute (IRI) Women's Democracy Network, discussing the role of the Indonesian State Ministry for Empowerment of Women in strengthening women's political participation in Indonesia. Indonesian women thus far have been marginalized socially, culturally, economically, and politically although they constitute the majority demographically. The article discusses networking and lobbying practices to strengthen women's participation on the local and national levels and to introduce gender quotas.
 
National Non Arab - Women At The Top 2005: Changing Numbers, Changing Politics? [English]. 2005
Report published by Hansard Society on women's political representation in the United Kingdom which examines the integration of women's perspectives into British political life. It also identifies the under-representation of women in British elected institutions.
 
National Non Arab - Women in Politics: Opinion Research Paper [English]. 2006
Research paper published by the United Nations Development Programme-Turkey attempting to determine the Turkish general public's opinion and perception towards the participation of women in politics, gender quotas, and the role of political parties in the advancement of women's participation in politics.
 
Not Assigned - Guidelines for the Content and Structure of Parliamentary Web Sites [English][French]. 2000
The booklet contains the complete text of the guidelines as well as the accompanying IPU Council resolution which was unanimously adopted in May 2000 in Amman. The booklet is addressed primarily to Webmasters, information technology experts and all those working in the field of parliamentary information and involved in planning and realization of parliamentary Web sites. The Guidelines should be of particular interest to those parliaments that are currently embarking on Web-related projects.
 
Not Assigned - Women in Politics: 2005 (Poster) [English][Arabic][French]. 2005
The poster is a "snapshot" of the presence of women in the Executive and Legislative branches of Government, in January 2005. It is published by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women. The poster provides information on the percentage of women in ministerial ranks, women in parliaments, women in the highest decision-making bodies (women Presidents of States or Governments, women Presiding Officers of parliamentary bodies), as well as information on the ministerial portfolios held by women throughout the world.
Publications Added Recently
Arab Countries - The Upper Houses in Arab Parliaments: Their Representative, Legislative, and Oversight Functions and Their Role in the Budget Process. Comparative Study of the Constitutional and Legal Framework [English][Arabic][French]
 
Arab Countries - strengthening the Oversight Function of Arab Parliaments. Developing the Legal Framework [English][Arabic]
 
Arab Countries - Energy Subsidies in the Arab World [English]
 
Arab Countries - Arab Parliamentary Bulletin - Issue 9 [English][Arabic]
 
UN Agencies - Making the State Responsive:Experience with Democratic Governance Assessments [English]